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Oct 18, 2018
08:00-09:00 Conference Registration Desk Open / Mesa de inscripción abierta
09:00-09:30 Conference Opening / Inauguración del Congreso - Dr Phillip Kalantzis-Cope, Common Ground Research Networks, USA
09:30-10:05 Plenary Session / Sesión plenaria - Dr Dave Karpf Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies, School of Media & Public Affairs, George Washington University

"What Happened to the Political Blogosphere: Tracing the Hidden Forces that Shape Alt-Media"

Dave Karpf is an Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the George Washington University School of Media & Public Affairs. He teaches and conducts research at the intersection of digital media and political institutions, with a particular focus on new advocacy and activist strategies in the digital age. He is the award-winning author of The MoveOn Effect: the Unexpected Transformation of American Political Advocacy (Oxford University Press, 2012) and Analytic Activism: Digital Listening and the New Political Strategy (Oxford University Press, 2016). His work has also appeared in The Nation, Chronicle of Higher Education, The American Prospect, and Nonprofit Quarterly, along with many academic journals.
10:05-10:35 Garden Conversation / Charlas de jardín

Garden Conversations are informal, unstructured sessions that allow delegates a chance to meet plenary speakers and talk with them at length about the issues arising from their presentation. When the venue and weather allow, we try to arrange for a circle of chairs to be placed outdoors.

Las charlas de jardín son sesiones informales no estructuradas que permiten reunirse con ponentes plenarios y conversar tranquilamente sobre temas derivados de su ponencia. Cuando el lugar y el clima lo permiten, se realizan en el exterior.
10:35-11:20 Talking Circles / Mesas redondas

Held on the first day of the conference, Talking Circles offer an early opportunity to meet other delegates with similar interests and concerns. Delegates self-select into groups based on broad thematic areas and introduce themselves and their research interests to one another.

Celebradas el primer día del congreso, las mesas redondas constituyen una de las primeras oportunidades para conocer a otros participantes con intereses y preocupaciones similares. Los participantes eligen los grupos que prefieren según grandes áreas temáticas y se sumergen en grandes debates sobre los temas y problemáticas para el área correspondiente de la Red de Investigación.

Room 1 – Media Cultures / Media Theory
Room 2 – Spanish-language Talking Circle (Mesa redonda en español)
Room 3 – Media Technologies and Processes
Room 4 – Media Business 
Room 5 – Media Literature
Plenary Room – 2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
11:20-11:25 Transition Break / Pausa
Plenary Room Strategic Engagement

Usage of Social Media by the Politicians of Pakistan: A Case Study on the Elected Members of National Assembly of Pakistan 2013-2018
Sana Naveed Khan, Assistant Professor, Institute of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Lahore, -, Pakistan
Savera Shami, Assistant Professor, Institute of Communication Studies, Pakistan
Ayesha Ashfaq, Assistant Professor, University of the Punjab, Pakistan

Overview: The advent of social media has opened up a multitude of different horizons for political actors and their audiences. The inherent two-way communication between politicians and their voters has made social media as one of the most viable platforms for political campaigns. This research does a comparative analysis of usage of social media by politicians of different countries and establishes a pattern of usage of social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook in political campaigns. It then extends the investigation into the practices used by Members of the National Assembly (MNA) of Pakistan in regards to reaching their potential voters. The findings concluded that 25% of the MNAs use social media for political activities and within this group of MNAs; the majority prefers Twitter to Facebook due to the direct nature of platform. For the same reason, the percentage, which runs their own Twitter accounts, is higher than those who offload these tasks to their teams or managers. Based on the findings, it is concluded that Pakistani political actors are well aware of the purpose of using social media and are even satisfied with the way that the social media platforms help them in achieving that purpose. This is consistent with patterns observed in studies throughout the world.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

President Jokowi’s Attempt to Engage Indonesian Millennials: Comparing Discourses of Political Communication vs Youth Policy Agenda
Annisa Fitriana, Consultant, Corporate and Public Affairs, Edelman Indonesia, Jakarta, -, Indonesia
Overview: The upcoming 2019 Presidential Election in Indonesia will involve unprecedented young voter participation accounting for 35-40% of the total voters, which approximately translates into 70-80 million based on the data from the Indonesian General Election Committee (KPU). This means that young people will be one of the most critical determinants of the output of the election. Observing this importance, it is inevitable that young voters are targeted selectively by the incumbent for securing a second term. This study investigates the discourses of the incumbent’s communication to the public on several occasions during the first term of office and draws on the analysis to compare the youth policy agenda that is being offered. In this way, the study concludes whether the incumbent’s political communication is policy-driven or just an attempt to attract young voters for the upcoming election.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
Room 1 Colloquium

Communication, Digital Publics and Democracy: New Challenges
Caja Carola Thimm, -, -, University of Bonn, Bonn, -, Germany
Laura Solzbacher, -, -, University of Bonn, Bonn, -, Germany
Inga Brentel, -, -, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, -, Germany
Marike Bormann, -, -, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, -, Germany
Jan Philipp Kluck, -, -, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisberg, -, Germany
Celine Fabienne Luecken, -, -, Dusseldorf University of Applied Sciences, Dusseldorf, -, Germany

Overview: Networked media and the opportunities for digital participation that they provide have changed forms of political participation. Various digital platforms open up new forms of communication for citizens, who are now able to (re) distribute political content and preferences whenever they wish. In particular, the rapidity of responses, the high density of information exchange and the worldwide distribution of content point to digital dynamics of political communication. But these options of strengthening democratic participation has been counterbalanced by negative effects such as fragmentation, elite discourses and algorithmic filtering of information. Also more and more anti-democratic, racist and sexist content can be found on the Internet. Currently, particularly antisocial forms of communication such as hate speech, cyberbullying or “fake news" are a challenge for a networked public. Consequently, we need to discuss fundamental questions like the balancing between individual freedom and activities endangering democracy. Increasingly, so it seems, online cultures of communication are putting pressure on democracy. The Panel will include the following presentations: (1) New ethics for online information? The impact of fake news on journalism Laura SOLZBACHER (presenting), Aline Franzke (presenting) & Caja THIMM (presenting) (2) Incivility in Political Online-Communication: Types, Causes, Effects and Interventions Marieke BORMANN (presenting), Jan-Philipp KLUCK (presenting). Nicole KRAEMER & Gerhard VOWE (3) Audience and market fragmentation online: Resulting challenges for democracies – The case of Germany Inga BRENTEL (presenting), Céline Fabienne LÜCKEN (presenting), Olaf JANDURA, Olexiy KHABYUK
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
Room 3 Teaching and Learning

Mongolian Use of Social Media Products for Education of Green Lifestyle
Bayarmaa Enkhbayar, Senior officer for Communications and Knowledge, Green Growth Planning and Implementation, Global Green Growth Institute, Ulaanbaatar 16050-0071, Mongolia
Overview: Today, young people under the age of twenty-five are the largest generation of youth in Mongolia. Similarly, they represent half of the world’s population, living mostly in developing countries. Education about the green growth and green economy is essential to enable young people to participate fully in the transition to a low carbon, resource efficient, and socially inclusive economy. Young people are already driving change across the world. We must provide the skills to create new and green lifestyle. Building a green future must start with education and awareness. GGGI produced green lifestyle promoting media products and successfully shared with ministries and government agencies. The ministries and government agencies were impressed and satisfied with the content and quality of the videos and using them in many purposes. For instance: The Ministry of Environment and Tourism used the videos during the assembly for over 500 students and teachers of ninety-four eco clubs at eighty-nine schools. The youth-friendly, inclusive 2D animation videos promote energy and water savings, waste recycling, and air pollution reduction and prevention etc. We have extensive experience how to use social media for promoting and circulating the videos at zero cost. This is a best practice how promote young people`s education in green economy and development through cost-effective and simplified way. This is also a demonstration how to effectively use social media like Facebook and Twitter for educating young people.
Theme:Media Literacies

Developing an Interdisciplinary "New Media Studies" Major: Challenges and Solutions
Prof. Kristen Morgan Morgan, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, Connecticut, United States
Dr. David Pellegrini, -, -, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, Connecticut, United States

Overview: Now in its fourth year, the interdisciplinary New Media Studies major at Eastern Connecticut State University is unique among the CT state university system. We will describe the challenges in the initial development of the program, Board of Regents approval, assessment, and continued refining of the major. We will also highlight solutions for the success of one of the most vibrant and fastest-growing majors on campus.
Theme:Media Literacies

Social Media, Distracting or Engaging?: Student Success and the Role of Facebook
Nathalie Wesseling, -, -, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, North-Holland, Netherlands
Overview: I investigate the factors of student success and the influence of the use of social media for first year students in higher education. For this I use the insights provided by the highly influential and leading integration theory of Tinto and diminished the amount of variables by only using the best predictive ones. Hereby, avoiding the capitalization of chance and establishing a more easy to use model for teachers and management. Furthermore, I enriched the model with the use of social media, in particular Facebook, to better suit students’ contemporary society in the developed world. Principal component analysis on Facebook usage provided different integration/engagement components, which I coined peer-engagement and knowledge engagement. Both consisted of various purposes of Facebook use (information, education, social and leisure) and the use of different pages amongst students. To uncover if these latent variables play a significant role in student success or if Facebook is a multi-distracting platform, two models were compared using structural equation modeling with SPSS AMOS; one with and one without the peer-, and knowledge engagement variables. The fit of both models are compared using the normed fit index (NFI), the comparative fit index (CFI), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). In addition, the direct influence and indirect influence of all variables are compared to provide a better insight into what kind of influence social media can have upon student success.
Theme:Media Technologies

Information Seeking Behaviour of the Millennials: Everyday-life News
Joan Bartlett, Associate Professor, McGill University, Canada
Dr. Jamshid Beheshti, Professor, School of Information Studies, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Rebecca Katz, Doctoral student, McGill University, Canada
Anna Couch, Doctoral Candidate, McGill University, Canada
Cynthia Kumah, Doctoral Candidate, McGill University, Canada

Overview: Current research suggests that today’s generation, those between eighteen and twenty-four years old, may rely heavily on social media for everyday news information. To investigate further the news information-seeking behaviour of the Millennials, we surveyed 22,900 undergraduate students in a tier-one university on their use of news resources and access tools, their perceptions of credibility of resources, and factors determining credibility. The email survey in October 2017 yielded 3565 usable questionnaires (response rate 15.6%; Cronbach’s alpha ranging between 0.884 and 0.992). Data analyses, whilst supporting some of the findings of previous research, show that many Millennials rely on their family and friends as viable news resources. Following Warde’s theory on time (Boterill et al, 2015), our study suggests that time as manifested through convenience may be considered an important factor in deciding on news resources despite potential lack of credibility. Additionally, and in line with previous research (Shearer & Gottfried, 2017), we also detected a major gender effect for news resources and access tools used. However, our analysis also shows gender effect on perceptions of credibility of news resources, and factors determining credibility of resources. Future research on news information-seeking behaviour should focus on the convenience factor, and on the reasons underlying the gender effect.
Theme:Media Literacies
Room 4 Reach and Representation

Black Panther-Black Power: Theology and a Blockbuster Film
Kenneth Jones, Endowed Distinguished Professor and Dean of Liberal and Fine Arts, Language, Literature and Communication, Elizabeth City State University , Elizabeth City, NC, United States
Overview: As the highest grossing film of the year, Marvel Studio’s film Black Panther has reignited interest in black cinema unlike any other film in history. Since its release in February of 2018, Black Panther has sparked a great deal of discussion on many fronts—including as a marketing success and the range of iconic black roles in the film. This presentation considers theological themes in the film, such as James Cone’s Black Liberation Theology and Womanist Theology in light of 21st Century controversies such as #MeToo and #Black Lives Matter. We resolve that textual analysis of black power in black cinema today is as relevant as it was in the early years of Cone and Stokely Carmichael.
Theme:Media Cultures

Indigenous Filmmaking with Mainstream Ambitions: Intercultural Communication Transcending Established Order
Dr. Agata Lulkowska, -, -, Birkbeck, University of London, London, London, United Kingdom
Overview: This paper analyzes the emerging trend of transcending the limitations of so-called indigenous cinema in the attempt to reach much wider audiences within the mainstream circles. Using the case study of the Arhuaco filmmakers from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, I demonstrate how the filmmaking practice, which was initiated by non-artistic ambitions of giving the evidence of violence and repression in the region, become a very effective tool to reach intercultural communication. The ethnographic methods applied in this research draw on my extensive fieldwork with the Arhuacos which resulted in the production of a collaborative documentary focusing on their filmmaking. The implication of this investigation is the realisation of the universal and intercultural value of film as a form of intercultural communication, as well as a reflection on the possibility to break the long-established boundaries between mainstream and indigenous cinema and also film as an artistic expression versus film as a very effective communication tool.
Theme:Media Cultures

Becoming Young: A Processual Approach to Youth Culture as a Way to Understand Its Representation in Media Organizations
Maxim Bonin, -, -, University of Quebec, Montreal, -, Canada
Overview: Vice Media considers itself the only media with the capacity of reaching millennials. Thus 76% of young adults between the ages of eighteen and thirty-four constitute the audience of the media (Vice Digital, 2017). Vice explains this success by "stories" produced by young people for young people. In the fall of 2016, Vice Canada's francophone section was launched. The head-quarter of Vice-Québec is now located in downtown Montreal. The Executive Director of Vice Québec said in an interview that "their mission is to hire young talents" and "to present Quebec’s culture to the world." This desire to highlight the "young local culture" forged in the mission of Vice, is not only represented in the topics discussed but also in its production, by hiring young talents. Using the emphasis on youth culture in Vice’s metaconversations, this communication aims to define a processual approach (Resher, 2006; Nayak , 2008; Langley and Tsoukas, 2017) of youth culture in the study of its representation in media organizations. Using Vice Québec as an example, this paper is a theoretical proposition to approach youth culture as a process. It explores how this process can be articulated with the representation of youth culture within the organization, and particularly in the the internal and external metaconversations (Robichaud, Giroux, and Taylor, 2004) of the media organization that is Vice Media.
Theme:Media Cultures, Media Theory
Room 5 Popular Engagement

Reading China: Measuring Policy Change with Machine Learning
Dr. Weifeng Zhong, Research Fellow, Economic Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, -, United States
Overview: While China’s industrialization process has long been a product of government direction until now there has been no quantitative measures of the Chinese government's policy priorities over a long period of time. We fill this gap by devising the first of such measures, the Policy Change Index (PCI) of China, which runs from 1952 to the present. We use the full texts of the People’s Daily, the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, as raw data to construct the PCI. Our method is based on LSTM networks (à la Hochreiter and Schmidhuber, 1997) and the CUSUM test (à la Page, 1954) to detect significant changes in the policy-importance of People’s Daily articles. This method allows us to infer the shift in the priorities of the Chinese government's policies. The constructed PCI not only matches important policy changes that have taken place in China---such as the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the economic reform program---but is also able to make short-term predictions about China’s future policy directions.
Theme:Media Theory

Cultural Practices of New Nationalism in Poland
Dr. Piotr Zanko, -, -, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Mazowieckie, Poland
Dr. Michał Rauszer, Assistant Profesor , Faculty of Educataion, University of Warsaw

Overview: After the collapse of communism in 1989 in Poland the National Independence Day was revived on the 11th of November. To commemorate the anniversary of the restoration of Poland’s sovereignty in 1918 marches have been organized by different patriotic groups. However in 2009 a few fascists organizations joined the celebrations, gathering hundreds of thousands of people. It wasn’t until 2010 that the situation changed and November 11th became a platform for new nationalism. The nationalist sentiments were triggered by the presidential plane crash in Smolensk in April 2010. Simultaneously in Polish public discourse the term “lewactwo” – which is a derogatory combination of the words “left wing” and “worms” – was coined. This word has become the symbolic foundation for the new nationalism discourse. Moreover, the nationalists have started using the cultural practices characteristic for subcultures and alternative cultures, making it a platform very popular among young people. These local practices coincided with the rise of a global phenomenon labeled as new nationalism. In Poland it inscribes into the structures of alternative information and web discourse against “lewactwo,” which can be found in the combination of patriotic motives with alternative culture. We analyze the performative and media practices of new nationalism such as marches, posters, graffiti, clothing, lyrics of rock and hip-hop music, etc. We also show what elements of social discourse this “patriotic subculture” is questioning and what alternative visions of the world it creates.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 6 Community Connections

Breaking through Barriers to Entry: TIME: The Kalief Browder Story
Steven Pope, Lab Instructor, Department of Communication, Florida State University, Tallahassee, -, United States
Overview: As a case study, TIME: The Kalief Browder Story exemplifies one success story of how a social change documentary can make its way into the concentrated cable/broadcast media industry. This report analyzes the production foundations of TIME to determine how the documentary recounting Kalief Browder's time spent in solitary confinement made its way past concentrated barriers to entry. Following the production analysis, this article also includes a brief synopsis of how the production foundations of TIME resulted in well-rounded storytelling unseen in commodified entertainment. The main finding from this report argues that the community backing and alternative support for the documentary lead to the successful creation and dissemination of TIME. From this, the praxis of the research suggests that in order to increase the amount of socially meaningful media in the cable/broadcast industry audiences must be incentivized to donate to their community media production companies. One possible solution proposed to incentivize audience would be to provide tax deductions or write offs for audiences who donate to their community media projects or alternative media outlets.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Community Radio: An Alternative Media Platform for Asian Migrants in New Zealand
Netra Timilsina, -, -, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
Overview: The study analysed three Asian migrant communities and their use of the community radio as an alternative media platform. Community radio is described as ‘radio by the people for the people’ where the voices heard are usually ignored in mainstream media. Scholars believe that alternative media mainly originated from dissatisfaction of audiences with mainstream media. Social margins, subcultures, ethnic or other minorities, who get minimum space in mainstream cultures, seek alternatives and create their own if not found. This study particularly analysed the use of the community radio platform by migrant Nepalese, Filipinos and Iranians living in Christchurch, New Zealand. These three communities are producing and broadcasting weekly radio programmes on Christchurch-based access radio station Plains FM. These three communities’ radio programmes are among the 47 ethnic languages radio programmes that 12 access radio stations produced in New Zealand in 2017. To analyse the use of radio by Asian migrants, the researcher observed the production processes and conducted focus groups and one-on-one interviews with audience members and programme producers. The study found that the migrant communities have desirable access to information, education and entertainment through their radio programs. Though those segments of audiences have easy access to mainstream media, they find their radio programmes more authentic and intimate. Community radio works as a platform for sharing, making sense of community identity and uniting a different segment of migrants. This study explores new way to analyse how migrants use the community radio as alternative platform to fulfil their mainstream media needs.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
Plenary Room
Internet Induced Business Strategy of Television Broadcasters: Impact of Internet Adoption by TV Broadcasters on their Conventional Viewership
Neeraj Sanan, Doctoral Student (final year), Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, -, United Kingdom
Overview: The business of television broadcasting is a science of managing dynamic equilibrium between Ratings and Revenues. This equilibrium is disrupted by Internet products which continue to transform the devices, motivations, and manner of consumption. Adoption of internet technology by TV broadcasters started slow but has become hurriedly reactive. This paper studies impact of internet adoption by Top 25 Indian TV broadcasters on their traditional business. This is an original study which contributes to an otherwise limited research of on broadcast television. Majority of earlier studies are either on technical data or qualitative models. With more than 180 Million TV sets and 230 Million wired Broadband connections to make, India is a pertinent geography for this study. Top five channels were selected in each of the five most popular genres; General Entertainment, Sports, News, Movies, and Music. For these twenty-five channels, this study analyzed data collected over 48 months, from Jan’13 to Dec’16, on TV ratings (BARC), website views (Rank2Traffic) and YouTube views (social blade). IoE sessions were found to comprise 10% or less than the TV reach but a significant correlation was observed between IOE and TV viewership; Negative Correlation for General Entertainment Channels and positive for News channels. Learning from this study will productively contribute to both industry professionals and academicians.
Theme:Media Business
Room 5
Branded Media and Redefining Fatherhood: Are Marketers Keeping Up?
Margaret A. Murphy, -, -, Columbia College, Chicago, IL, United States
Overview: Parenting and stereotypical gendered roles are evolving in society today as dual income families become the norm, single parent households are on the rise, and family household activities become redistributed. This inquiry, supported by academic and industry research, as well as original primary research challenges whether contemporary brands are keeping pace with these evolving gendered parenting roles. A content analysis of 637+ high profile advertisements evaluates recent branded messages in terms of portrayals of father figures, familial activities evidenced, and parent-child gendered relationships. A growing number of these high-profile branded messages align with documented societal shifts, but others remain rooted in stereotypical depictions of fathers as distant authority figures and/or buffoonish bumbling sidekicks. This contemporary branded media investigation concludes with recommendations for both next steps in this research inquiry and preliminary suggestions for more consistently responsible representations of contemporary fathers in today's evolving popular culture.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 6
Social Media and Filipino Migrants in Central Italy: Nandoon na ang lahat
John Rafael, 2016 Human Rights Fellow, WSD Handa Center for Human Rights and International Justice at Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States
Overview: This study highlights social media utilization by Filipino migrants in central Italy and underlines the effects controlling one’s image to their online networks has on their migrant livelihoods. Ethnographic research was done through participant observation, open-ended, semi-structured interviews,and focus group discussions of twenty-five Filipinos, namely in the areas of Rome, Siena, and the Rieti province. The project delineates both the extent of social media use and its importance in Filipino-Italian migrant livelihoods, utilizing Harvey and Myers’ critical hermeneutic framework, which recognizes the lack of neutrality in evaluating narrative data, as the basis of analysis. This work shows that Filipino migrant social media use goes beyond recreation and networking - it reaffirms a positive transnational imaginary. Different factors, including the degree of social media utilization, digital literacy, and affiliation to their Filipino culture, vary the degree such production and perpetuation of the imaginary takes place. Nevertheless, the findings suggest that upholding this imaginary attempts to curb Italian xenophobic tendencies towards foreigners, most notably by displaying similar or analogous cultural values and traditions. Such attempts of cultural production serve to recognize and accept these migrants in society by the host culture. The lens through which this phenomenon is examined additionally highlights social media as a coping mechanism for the separation from loved ones, difficult work experiences, and other factors faced by Filipino immigrants in Italy.
Theme:Media Technologies
13:05-14:15 Lunch / Almuerzo
Plenary Room Media Matters

Will Advertising Drive People to Online Streaming? : An Analysis of Motives Behind Subscribing to Online Streaming Services
Khalid Alharbi, PhD Student, Mass Communication, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States
Overview: This study explores the motivations that lead people to subscribe to online streaming services, and how much they are willing to pay for the sake of avoiding advertisements. A national sample of 501 people participated in an online questionnaire using uses and gratifications as a theoretical guide. The results suggest that having quality content can be enough to motivate people to subscribe to any service with or without advertisements.
Theme:Media Business

Privacy and The State: Digital Interface and Data Surveillance Practices in India
Devam Thapa, Research Scholar, Center for Media Studies, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, New Delhi, New Delhi, India
Overview: The recent urge among governments across the world to map their citizens has been widely noted and vehemently opposed in several parts of the democratic world. In India, a massive data collection program is being carried out to immaculate the purpose of citizen surveillance. Aadhaar is a twelve digit unique identity number which is issued to the citizens of India after registering their biometric details, collected by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI). Some of the attributes and utilities of Aadhar are described as the targeted delivery of financial and other subsidies, benefits, and services. Aadhar was subsequently muscled with the legislative strength in the budget session of 2016. Recently government made Aadhaar mandatory for availing a host of state services, which includes grain allotment at subsidized rates, filing tax returns, enrolling for scholarships, etc. despite being its mandate not to make it essential for state welfare programs. With the fear of data breach, Supreme Court of India has agreed to form a constitutional bench to hear all the angles associated with Aadhaar. Subsequently ruling that the right to privacy is intrinsic to life and liberty. Increasing reports on the data breach, through online portals, the citizens anxiously sought judicial intervention. Through theoretical deliberations, this paper attempts to understand the implications of such large-scale biometric data collection. It contends the ownership upon citizens’ data as their essential rights of privacy. And theorize the state, society, and citizen relationship within the discursive boundaries of private and social.
Theme:Media Technologies
Room 1 Global Perspectives

In a Mediated Age: Migrant and Host Culture Perceptions and Expectations
Dr. Mary Ellen Schiller, Professor of Media Studies, Department of Communication, Roosevelt University, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Overview: This paper, focusing on recent and current migration events, begins with the wide acknowledgement that mass media, especially news media, are the dominant sources of the material from which individuals and groups construct their social realities. This remains firm, even in the face of the expansion of social media, which largely offer users affirmation and confirmation of existent beliefs, rather than prompt the formation of new ones. For both migrants and residents of host/receiving countries and communities, perceptions of what to expect are formed well ahead of the parties having personal contact with one another, and are framed largely by mass media reports. Historic and current literature on the portrayal of migrants across the mass media spectrum, the recurrent motifs and images of the narratives, reports of the lived experiences of migrants recently settled in unfamiliar cultural contexts, reports of the lived experiences of members of host/receiving communities, and the ways in which media-influenced expectations held by both have been confirmed or nullified are all examined.
Theme:Media Cultures

"We Need More Positive Stories": Western Australian Community Perspectives Concerning News Media Representations of People Seeking Asylum
Ashleigh Haw, Campaign Content Writer , Asylum Seeker Resource Centre , Perth, Australia
Overview: In Australia, the issue of people seeking asylum has received widespread media attention, attracting considerable debate at both the political and community level. For people who oppose refugee resettlement in Australia, asylum seekers are routinely constructed as illegal immigrants (Every and Augoustinos, 2008; Pedersen, et al, 2006; Clyne, 2005; Klocker 2004; Pickering, 2001), queue-jumpers (Markus and Dharmalingam, 2014; Augoustinos and Every, 2007; Pedersen, et al, 2005), and economic migrants (Saxton, 2003; Pickering, 2001). While limited, there is some empirical evidence to suggest that similar discourses are pervasive in Australian news content about asylum seekers, often mirroring political discourses that serve to justify exclusionary or punitive policies for managing asylum seekers (e.g. McKay, et al, 2011; Saxton, 2003). While some Australian research has focused on media discourses about people seeking asylum, no prior studies have explored community perspectives on how asylum seekers are portrayed by the Australian news media. This paper discusses the findings of research utilising Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995) combined with Hall’s Audience Reception Theory (1993) to examine the perceptions of a sample Western Australians regarding news representations of people seeking asylum. The key discourses uncovered were concerned with negativity, sensationalism, and a lack of transparency in Australian news reports surrounding asylum seekers. These discourses are discussed with emphasis on the wider implications from both a research and policy perspective.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 3 In the News

Media and Politics: Czech Periodical on the Borderline with Hitler´s Germany
Marie Štěpánová, PhD. student, Institute of Czech Language and Theory of Communication, Charles University in Prague, Prague, -, Czech Republic
Overview: In the time of the rising power of Nazism, the tension was mounting in German-speaking and ethnically mixed border areas of Czechoslovakia, the notorious “Sudetendland”. Periodicals such as “Our Minorities“ (later “Our Boundaries”) tried to support small and often isolated Czech communities on the frontier, which were “minorities” within their own country. In a European context, Czechoslovakia was one of the last islands of democracy before the outbreak of WW2. The paper is based on original research and presents the role of interwar serial information distribution, while at the same time connecting and supporting the Czech minority in Nord-East Bohemia. It provides information about publishing, the personalities responsible for the monthly periodical, and the creators of its content. Using a method of historical analysis, it summarizes the purpose and character of a First Republic periodical, published between 1920 and 1938. This was an era shortly after the proclamation of the newborn Republic of Czechoslovakia (1918), which was dealing with the consequences of WWI and heritage of the previous monarchy, and only months after one of the biggest disillusions of modern Central European history, that of the Munich Treaty (1938), which fatally affected the lives of all Czech citizens in the researched area of Sudetenland, and also therefore the lives of the periodical, its authors and readers. The research shows how the periodical reflected an atmosphere of totalitarianism in Europe during times of threatened democracy that seems to have much in common with the current situation in some areas of Central Europe.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Delineation of Pervez Musharraf in the Time Magazine 2001-2010
Ayisha Khurshid, -, -, Karl Franzens University , Graz, Graz, Austria
Overview: The coalition between the US and Pakistan on the war on terror in the wake of 9/11 terrorist attacks have been researched well across various disciplines. As the Pakistani President as well as military General Pervez Musharraf has been one of the key figures of this alliance, there is a need to probe if he is presented as a hardcore or a dubious ally, and what does such coverage reveal about the magazine’s policy towards Pakistan. For scrutinizing the delineation of Musharraf, the corpus comprising of 509 articles (published in the Time magazine form September 11, 2001 to Dec 2010) has been formulated. Further his presentation is analysed via Wordsmith concordance program, and Graph Coll. The collocates with the core Musharraf* (the Noun-Noun combination) are further categorized into semantic categories using corpus assisted critical discourse analysis. Using the notions of semantic preference and prosody, the study reveals that Musharraf’s identity is fostered as a politician rather than as a military man. Moreover, there is strong association between him and the President Bush. This notion is further strengthened statistically (p < 0.05). He is also presented as a figure engulfed in variant problems. Such projection where there is silence on the democracy till 2007 is in alliance with the US foreign policy towards Musharraf and Pakistan in general. It means that mirror model of news production is not the magazine’s policy and the media understudy has political alliances with the US government.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 4 Political Waves

Mobile Chat Applications and Political Protests in Contexts of Surveillance
Prof. Colin Agur, -, -, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
Overview: This paper identifies and conceptualizes the role of mobile chat applications (WhatsApp, WeChat, LINE, KakaoTalk, Snapchat, Firechat, Signal, Telegram, and others) as tools of political protest. Drawing on several dozen interviews with activists and journalists in Hong Kong and China, the paper focuses on political activism from 2014-present, emphasizing the significance of chat apps in contexts of surveillance. It explores the ways that mobile-first tools have changed the organization and mobilization of protest movements, as well as the ways that leaders and other participants seek to persuade those outside the movement. The paper also considers the vast amount of content that chat apps have produced (from intra-group chats to communiques aimed at journalists, to memes and art, to photos and clips, to dis- and misinformation) and the ways that news organizations have used chat apps as tools for covering large-scale protests. The paper emphasizes the shift from open social media (e.g. Twitter) to a still-evolving mix of open and closed conversations in chat apps.
Theme:Media Technologies

Media as Sources of Political Information: Comparative Analysis of Young People's Behavior before Presidential Elections in Poland and Lithuania
Anna Mierzecka, Assistant professor, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, -, Poland
Overview: The importance of political communication channels used by young people is clear in the light of numerous research which shows a growing political apathy of youth (Macintosh, 2008; Van Biezen, Mair and Poguntke, 2012). Some researchers disagree with this statement and describe the phenomenon of cultural displacement, which includes diverse political and civic activities, emphasizing the wide range of opportunities for social and political behavior offered by the Internet (Loader et al. 2014). This point of view also implies the significance of young people's political communication behavior recognition. This research looks to answer the question, how the younger generation uses media as sources of political information. Being aware of the significance of local conditions in this context we investigate this topic by conducting a survey among young citizens in Poland and Lithuania. The comparison of results from those two countries is possible thanks to similar historical and cultural experience (i.e. in both countries, after II World War, democratic transitions started in the nineteen nineties). The survey was conducted using a technique of Paper and Pen Personal Interview among the students (n=852) from University of Warsaw (Poland) and Vilnius University (Lithuania) two weeks before the last presidential elections in both countries. The students were chosen as respondents as the most active group of young people in the context of media usage. The objects of our interest were everyday patterns of media usage, the usefulness of different media channels as the sources of political information, and the level of active online media usage. Special attention was paid to usage of different media types, such as traditional like newspapers, radio, and television and digital ones like news portals. Additionally, social media and their usage were analyzed because of their potential to increase political engagement. The results show that despite the fact that the newspaper and radio are rarely used sources of information, the television still surprisingly plays an important role for young people. The same is with digital sources of information like news portals and social media; however the level of their interactive usage is quite low in the context of politics. The results were analysed using as independent variables the nationality, the political orientation of respondents, declarative level of political engagement, but also the area of study. The respondents represented humanities and social science (n=462) and science (n=390). This allows us to create a detailed picture of media usage for political purpose by young people from Poland and Lithuania.
Theme:Media Cultures

Alt-Rhet: Poetic Responses to the Alt-Right's "Alternative Fact" Intersubjectivity
Mr. Jahman Hill, Graduate Teaching Assistant, Gender and Race Studies, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States
Overview: In this paper, we examine the contemporary emergence of the "alternative fact" as an epistemological weapon of the American Alt-Right. Utilizing Robert L. Scott’s (1967) notion of rhetoric as epistemic in conjunction with Barry Brummett's work on intersubjectivity (1976), I posit that the Alt-Right exploits vulnerabilities in social knowledge formation as a means to build community. Our scholarly analysis is complemented by a poetic performance to embody and critique features of what we refer to as the “Alt-Rhet.”
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
Room 5 Creative Endeavors

Expressionist Dramaturgy as a Template for Intermedial Performance: Adapting Strindberg’s "To Damascus" for Creative Media Applications and Pedagogy
Dr. David Pellegrini, -, -, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, Connecticut, United States
Prof. Kristen Morgan Morgan, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, Connecticut, United States

Overview: Because of the many opportunities for staging and design innovations, August Strindberg’s “proto-expressionist” dramas have appealed to theatre practitioners for over a century. The earliest experiments in dramaturgical formalism, plays such as "The Keys of Heaven" and "A Dream Play" are packed with dense imagery and intertextual references that need to be realized across aural, pictorial, and imagistic elements that don’t merely serve the narratives, but actualize them. At the same time the structural elements of these plays harken back to medieval station and pageant dramas, when narrative “cycles” were enacted in site-specific locales and embodied by players and spectators in constant motion. New digital technologies combined with an emphasis on immersion and interactivity in contemporary performance expand the interpretive possibilities for such works, and within a university setting, for applied student learning of media technologies. Collaborators David Pellegrini and Kristen Morgan have adapted, condensed, and designed Strindberg’s rarely performed "To Damascus" trilogy as both an intermedial production and a template for training students to operate and design with virtual/augmented reality systems, performance capture technology, media server systems, and other media technologies. They will present their dramaturgical and design process, including storyboards, media mapping, and pedagogical templates for this production.
Theme:Media Cultures

Listening in Action: Modeling Digital Music Listening and Simultaneous Activities
Dr. Rebecca Rinsema, -, -, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
Overview: Since the introduction of the iPod in 2001 handheld electronics that store or stream compressed music files have steadily become the standard devices used for listening to music. A growing body of research investigates listening experiences as they are mediated by these devices (Bickford 2011; Bull 2008). I contribute to this body of research by introducing the "Integration in Consciousness" (IC) model as a way to characterize the experiences. Resulting from a grounded theory study, the IC model details the interaction among the musical sounds, simultaneous listener activities, and the nature of listener engagements. In the study ten college students from three institutions underwent iterative interviews; questions were developed from McCarthy and Wright’s (2004) Deweyan method for investigating user experiences with technology. Analysis yielded four axial codes as well as the IC model. I provide comparisons between the IC model and general models of music listening derived from other disciplines and methodologies (e.g. Dunn’s and Stockfelt’s). An important difference between the IC model and general models of music listening is the role played by simultaneous activities in the IC model. I explore possible explanations for this difference along the lines of methodology, scope of the study, and disciplinary perspective.
Theme:Media Technologies

From Propaganda to Guided Communication: Cartooning Political Communication in Digital China
Dr. Lei Qin, Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Asian Languages and Cultures, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, -, United States
Overview: This study looks into the recent boom of animated cartoons for political communication in China since late 2013. The series of political cartoons are examined against the background of a comprehensive media revolution designed by top following the Chinese Communist Party’s (hereafter CCP) new understanding of the role of media and public opinion. I argue, by looking closely at the creative use of political cartoons, that the CCP adjusted the role of media in the digital age from a propaganda mouth piece, to a guiding opinion unifier to popularize the Party. Their efforts and success in eliciting bottom-up responses with animated cartoons have suggested a transformation of communication model from top-down to bottom-up as well as reflecting the CCP’s changing understanding of the public from “target audience of propaganda” to guided audience, and then to central actors for popularizing the Party. The major media reform since Xi came to power in early 2013 has laid institutional, managerial and editorial foundation to practically sustain such a conceptual change, and the boom of political cartoons is the most prominent result of it.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 6 Power of Persuasion

Effects of Social and Entertainment Media on Body Image, Social Comparison, and Thin-ideal Internalization of Racially and Culturally Diverse Undergraduate Men
Dr. Cristina Azocar, -, -, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States
Dr. Ivana Markova, -, -, San Francisco State University, San Francisco , California, United States

Overview: A survey of racially and culturally diverse undergraduate men (N=565) examined the social and entertainment media’s influence on their body image, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalization. Results showed negative effects of both social and entertainment media on young men’s body image. Entertainment media (vs. social media) had a stronger effect on men’s thin-ideal internalization, whereas social media had a stronger effect on men’s social comparison. Ethnic minority (vs. Non-Hispanic Caucasian) men felt the most underrepresented on social and entertainment media. More specifically, 83% of men of Asian/Pacific Islander ethnic background, 82% of both Middle Eastern/Arab and Mixed race perceived their body types to be the most unrepresented in entertainment media. Whereas, 87% Middle Eastern/Arab, 75% of African American, and 74% of Asian/Pacific Islander perceived their body types to be the most unrepresented on social media sites. The implications of the research are discussed.
Theme:Media Cultures

The Arab Spring of Coca-Cola: How Coca-Cola Used Arab Spring Themes in Commercials in Egypt
Easa Alqahtani, Lecturer, King Khalid Unversity
Abdulaziz Alajlan, -, -, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom

Overview: This paper analyses Coca-Cola's campaign in Egypt after the Egyptian revolution in 2011. It finds that Coca-Cola understood the meaning and the signs of the Egyptian revolution and other cultural values and concepts in Egyptian society. In addition, this paper explores how Coca-Cola dealt with those cultural meanings. Coca-Cola, after the Egyptian revolution, cleverly used the meanings of Egyptian culture and signs of the Egyptian revolution in its advertisement campaigns. This paper analyzes these cultural signs and how they were used by Coca-Cola.
Theme:Media Cultures

Using Prospect Theory to Examine the Taiwanese Media Trust, Risk Perceptions, and Policy Support : The Case of the “New Southbound Policy”
Wen Cheng Fu, Associate Professor, Department of Journalism, National Defense University Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan
Overview: This presentation examines how the Taiwanese public’s levels of media and political trust influence their risk perceptions and propensity to support government policies entailing a significant degree of social risk, such as the government’s “New Southbound Policy.” Moreover, I also explored how risk knowledge, including subjective and objective knowledge, impact people’s risk communication behavior. A nationwide telephone survey was conducted to investigate these issues. The findings indicate that people’s risk perceptions positively influence their policy support. In addition, the participants’ media and political trust also positively impacted their risk perceptions. With respect to risk knowledge, the author confirmed that the objective knowledge of the participants negatively predicted their levels of risk perceptions. In contrast, other aspects of risk knowledge had a positive influence on risk perception and policy support. Various implications of these findings are discussed.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
15:30-15:50 Coffee Break / Pausa para el café
Plenary Room Digital Realities

An Assessment of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 1978-2018
Prof. Stuart N. Brotman, -, -, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
Overview: The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is celebrating its fortieth anniversary. It was created to serve as the President's principal adviser on telecommunications and information policy issues, working closely with the White House, other Executive Branch agencies, Congress, and the Federal Communications Commission. This paper reviews historic milestones from 1978 to 2018 related to NTIA's long-term impact on legislative and regulatory reform. It also assesses future directions where NTIA can provide meaningful leadership in helping to shape our nation's twenty-first-century digital policy agenda.
Theme:Media Technologies

Technographic Profiles and Online Self-Presentation Among Young Adult Filipinos in Mobile Dating Apps
Christian Jaycee Samonte, Research Assistant, Department of Communication Research, College of Mass Communication, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, -, Philippines
Dr. Jonalou Labor, Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Research, College of Mass Communication, University of the Philippines , Quezon City, Philippines

Overview: Available technologies, such as mobile phone dating applications, serve to enrich dating experiences. In the Philippines, particularly in Metro Manila, mobile dating app use has become pervasive, familiar, and even habitual among the youth. The trend to use such dating applications has paved the way for the discussions of the ever-evolving notion of presented self in online platforms. On one hand, a technographic profile pertains to how mobile dating apps access, use, and own technology (Forest, 1985). It also covers their attitude and values towards technology. On the other hand, self-presentation is the process of highlighting what is perceived as one’s sense of appropriateness in a communicative encounter (Goffman, 1956; Walther, 1996). The researcher employed a qualitative communication research design. As an inductive approach, the study used focus interviews. The study looked into the experiences of 40 Tinder users in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. Technographic profiles revealed that Tinder users are content authors, content managers, spectators and lurkers, collectors of potential matches, and critics. In terms of self-presentation, the researcher found out that that the performance of the self is constructed truthfully and ideally by showing sincerity to the performed role, using a personal front, dramatically executing the role, idealizing the online face, maintaining control of the shared information, misrepresenting the selves, and mystifying the presentation. The study concludes that the informants have already appropriated the use of the app because of the extensive use of Tinder and their capacity to pay access to the app.
Theme:Media Cultures

Listing Labor: Cataloging Collectibles in the Digital Vintage Economy
Michael Palm, -, -, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States
Tamara Kneese, -, -, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

Overview: In this paper, we analyze the buying and selling of vinyl records and vintage collectibles via online storefronts. While the digital vintage economy is framed by nostalgia for older modes of production and consumption, it is intrinsically connected to broader processes of platformization. On Etsy, stores and individual sellers can display and sell their one-of-a-kind threads alongside handcrafted items. Meanwhile, on Discogs, record stores and individual merchants list and sell new as well as collectible vinyl. Discogs and Etsy are often omitted from conversations about the platform economy, but the labor practices that sustain these platforms resemble the warehouse labor observed at Amazon, where low-wage workers quickly locate, pack, and ship items ordered by consumers. Much like larger-scale and more infamous companies like Airbnb and Uber, the niche markets comprising the digital vintage economy thrive on a gendered artisanal and entrepreneurial imaginary that underpins what is in fact very mundane labor. We draw on interviews with individual sellers as well as record and vintage store owners and employees in the Bay Area, Portland, and Brooklyn to describe how merchants use Discogs, Etsy, eBay, and Instagram as digital storefronts to augment their brick-and-mortar sales. We situate the online traffic in collectibles within broader platform economies, and by comparing records and vintage clothes as sectors of the digital vintage economy, dominated by men and women respectively, we are able to critique digital divisions of labor, which continue to be organized by race, age, and class as well as gender and geography.
Theme:Media Cultures

All the World’s a [Mirror] Stage: Lacan, Social Media and Emergent Subjectivities
Scott Wilson, Senior Lecturer / Academic Leader, Performing and Screen Arts, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, -, New Zealand
Overview: If we recognise Jacques Lacan’s three registers of the Imaginary, Symbolic and Real as structures which govern textual production, then Social Media texts and platforms do more than simply represent these registers; they circulate them and enforce their articulation by demonstrating how to operate as textual producers and consumers within them. With this in mind, how might have Social Media affected the relationship of the subject to the world accessed through these media forms? How, especially, does the subject negotiate the complicated terrain of power and knowledge represented, first, by an acquiescence to, and then an overcoming of, the Subject-Supposed-to-Know? How might this revision of a crucial moment (for Lacan) in the development of the subject play out and be visible in such contemporary crises as Post-Truth, QAnon and Brexit? This paper seeks to explore the structuring effect of Lacan’s Three Registers on subjective formation and examine the manner with which Social Media offer a digital revision of these structures, making available new ways of becoming subjects that differ from previous (analogue) subjects in their relationship to categories of knowledge and the manner with which this knowledge might be used to generate an encounter with the world.
Theme:Media Theory
Room 3 Speaking Truth to Power

Challenging Gender Norms: The Power of Theater for Social Change
Kenza Oumlil,
Leslie Jacobson, -, -, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States

Overview: This paper examines the intersection of communication, gender, and performance, as demonstrated through a creative project involving students at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco (AUI). Drawing from theater for social change theory and from literature on performing gender, this paper examines the impact of using theater to effect societal change. In four AUI Media and Gender classes (fall 2015, spring 2016, fall 2016, and fall 2017), students formulated a series of questions designed to elicit responses from other AUI students, creating compelling narratives focusing on gender equality and sexual violence. The transcripts of these interviews were edited into four scripts, performed as staged readings. The methodology for this paper relies on data from surveys collected after the four performances, as well as interviews and discussions conducted with the classes and the four audiences. Analysis reveals that attendance at the play increased over the two-year period, and survey participants responded that seeing a theatrical performance helped them understand issues differently. The audiences were motivated to take concrete action to promote gender equality in society in direct proportion to the power and specificity of the stories shared onstage, demonstrating the potential of theater to inspire the audience to make positive societal change.
Theme:Media Cultures

LGBTQ Online Movements: A Case Study of New Zealand
Suvojit Bandopadhyaya, Christchurch, New Zealand
Linda Jean Kenix, Professor/Head of School, Media and Communication, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, -, New Zealand

Overview: This paper explores the shifting dynamics of what constitutes a contemporary social movement and the pros and cons that have emerged after movements have gone online. The paper attempts to bridge past research on online movements and the study of the contemporary lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) movement in New Zealand. This paper is premised on in-depth interviews with twenty-nine interviewees regarding how social media has brought a change to the contemporary LGBT movement in New Zealand. This research tries to draw a correlation with past researchers and interviewee responses. The interviewees testified to shifting nature of the contemporary LGBT movement after the emergence and inclusion of the Internet and social media platforms. Social networking sites have led to greater awareness and better coordination among movement actors to organise LGBT movements in New Zealand. Social media has also been a great organizational tool for the LGBT community today. The paper concludes that the Internet and social media have led to more visibility and accessibility of information with contemporary movements. The Internet has been a facilitator even before the emergence of social media platforms, however, online activism has amplified and has taken a new meaning with several social media platforms at our disposal today and social media activists are exploiting different platforms to organize and mobilize supporters.
Theme:Media Technologies

#Hashtivism Tackles Sexual Harassment: How #MeToo Emboldens Feminist Critical Media Literacy Education and Activism
Julie Frechette, Professor, Worcester State University, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
Overview: Lifelong civic engagement for social change includes feminist approaches to media literacy that encourage critical analysis of corporate media practices that perpetuate gender inequities and injustices. The recent international social media activism brought to light by the #MeToo campaign affords a poignant and timely case study for assessing how media literacy activism can unify and mobilize the NetGeneration to challenge antiquated attitudes and behaviors that keep women marginalized in media sectors, public life, and business careers. Along with the recent slew of celebrity revelations of sexual harassment brought on by the Harvey Weinstein exposé, women -- and some men -- have used hashtag campaigns to share personal stories of sexual harassment and assault. #MeToo caught fire when actress Alyssa Milano tweeted a call-out to victims to provide the public with a sense of the seriousness and magnitude of the problem. Drawing from what I’ve defined as “The sexual harassment scandals of U.S. Media Celebrities Donald Trump, Bill O’Reilly and Harvey Weinstein,” and data provided by the 2017 Report of The Status of Women in the U.S. Media, I analyze the correlation between male domination of media enterprises and the continued systematic marginalization and oppression of women within and outside U.S. media enterprises. The goal is to connect media literacy education with feminist scholarship and pedagogy as a catalyst for lifelong civic engagement and social justice activism.
Theme:Media Literacies

New Perspectives in Reception Studies: Exploring Audience Reception Using Mediated Discourse Analysis
Julie Whiteman, -, -, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, -, United Kingdom
Overview: This paper examines contemporary sexualization of culture debates and postfeminist understandings of sexuality which have framed the feminine as sexual, taking contemporary mainstream music video and social media as a case study. This paper argues that these texts present a version of sexuality that is heteronormative, that reinforces a view of heterosexuality as the normative sexuality, and that normalises a hegemonic heterosexuality which legitimises existing power relations and is frequently linked with (sexual) violence against women. This paper further presents Mediated Discourse Analysis (MDA) as an innovative methodological approach for reception studies. By focusing on "discourse in action" it provides a vehicle to understand how texts are read and interpreted when appropriated by the audience. The paper sets this methodology within a feminist framework of reception studies drawing on literature from feminist theory, media, and cultural studies; it demonstrates how this methodology is being employed in the author’s own ethnographic research to explore reading and interpretation of sexual scripts within contemporary music video and social media and the significance of this intertextual relationship. This paper explores the relationship between ideas and action to understand how sexual scripts are communicated within the current postfeminist sexualised media culture landscape.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 4 Trumped

Fake Media and Trump's Image in the Presidential Election of 2016: A Secondary Construction of Online Identity
Elisa Kannasto, Lecturer, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, Seinäjoki, -, United States
Ari Haasio, -, -, University of Tampere, Lapua, Finland

Overview: In this study, we look at the ways one fake media website, "Newspunch," portrayed Donald Trump prior to the presidential election 2016 in the United States. The data were collected between Trump’s candidacy announcement and the election day and consisted of 310 news articles collected during 516 days. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The content was coded into categories to show the issues and characteristics that were used to construct Trump’s online identity, the self presentation portrayed of Trump online. For this process, a model for analyzing the secondary construction, i. e. the construction built by an outside institution, of online identity was created. Several different ways to construct a political candidate’s online identity were found. Personal facts, like Trump’s origin, age, and family were left with very little attention. Instead, emphasis was placed on certain policies, like opposing Muslims and Mexicans, highlighting Trump’s reputation, wealth, and the use of controversial rhetoric and his behavior and rhetoric towards women. Also, Trump’s relation and connections with other politicians and celebrities were discussed widely. Trump’s lack of expertise in political issues was highlighted and different ways, including comments about his looks, entertainment world, and assassination speculations, were used to ridicule him. Understanding how fake media constructs a politician’s online identity helps in developing media literacy because it provides insight into approaching these types of media and their news.
Theme:Media Cultures

From Subjugated Knowledges to Alternative Facts: News Media and the Politics of Truth in the Trump Era
Black Hawk Hancock, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Overview: Following Michel Foucault’s work, what is the status of truth, knowledge, and power in the Trump era of “alternative facts” where “fake news media” is “the enemy of the people?” In answering this question through an assessment of news media, this paper explores Foucault’s concepts of power/knowledge and the constitutive role they play in constituting “truth” in the public sphere. Since facts are never self-evident, knowledge is always a process of production in the interests of a group situated within a social system of power relations. Facts are resources that are linked together—articulated— within specific social contexts for particular ideologies, politics, and practices. As a result, this paper explores the construction of facts, how facts are inserted into discourses and discursive formations, which become power/knowledge regimes. To parse opinion from empirical evidence, relativism from objectivity, dominant from subjugated knowledges, authoritarianism from truth-telling, we must return to fundamental Foucauldian questions: What is the function and value of truth? How does truth exercise power? What are the effects that truth produces? These questions provide a springboard to examine the realm of news media as the conduit through which information is circulated to communicate, interpret, explain, and critique the world around us.
Theme:Media Theory
Room 5 Tech Trends

Studying Tracking Technologies in Web Archives: Theories and Methods for Historical Studies of Web Tracking
Janne Nielsen, -, -, Aarhus University, Aarhus, -, Denmark
Overview: The world wide web is not only the place for a large part of social, cultural and political life today but also for widespread tracking of users and behavior online. Tracking technologies (cookies, beacons, local storage, fingerprinting etc.) are used for a variety of purposes, including personalisation, social profiling, advertising, and analytics. These virtually ubiquitous practices, which are part of a huge industry but also raise significant privacy concerns, have played an important role in the shaping of the web, and still do so today. To contribute to the understanding of the development and spread of tracking technologies, this presentation offers a theoretical background for a historical study of tracking technologies and their impact on the web. To study the historical development of tracking, we need web archives, where the web of the past has been collected and preserved, but tracking technologies are not necessarily included in the materials available in web archives. Furthermore, working with archived web materials poses significant methodological challenges. The presentation will discuss, which possible traces of tracking technologies that can be expected to be found in web archives, and reflect on the different methods that might be applied in historical studies of web tracking.
Theme:Media Technologies

Symmetrifying a Smart Home: A Topological Study of the Internet of Things
Sungyong Ahn, Ph.D. Candidate, Institute of Communications Research, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, -, United States
Overview: Media studies’ recent interest in topological culture suggests that today’s networked infrastructures with finer-granularity despatialize the places of cultural practices and relocate them on a sort of continuum always not-enough-differentiated or further-differentiable. For instance, streams of digital signal do not simply transmit fixed forms of objects in a predefined space, but unfolds a space itself as the result of an application, e.g. a filtering, performed on the streams to (re)differentiate their continuum into the provisional boundaries of objects and subjects. Interconnecting various physical entities and smart devices in a regional domain, the Internet of Things (IoT) also transforms today’s smart home into a topological continuum differentiable into many different problem-spaces according to its applications that function to individuate each singular problem latent in our everyday practices. One’s domestic interior under this smart system is strategically kept in a metastable state to be constantly re-bifurcated into a more optimal future state, which can be achieved only through the system’s proactive individuation of the most urgent problem embedded in the continuum and its realignment of the devices for the solution. We can borrow a mathematical concept 'manifold' from Bernhard Riemann’s differential geometry and Henri Poincaré’s group theory to examine how this topological continuum redefines today’s domestic interior as full of problematic relations susceptible of commodification into the form of smart applications. By doing so, we can infer a regime of power that governs the marketability of IoT and the human behaviors under its space making.
Theme:Media Theory

Gamification: Pitfalls and Potentials
Clemens Ackermann, Research Coordination Internationalization, ARENA2036, ARENA2036, Stuttgart, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
Max Hossfeld, CTO, ARENA2036, Stuttgart, Germany
Johanna Kleinen, PhD Student, -, Daimler AG, Stuttgart, -, Germany

Overview: "There was once […] an automaton constructed in such a way that it could respond to every move by a chess player with a countermove that would ensure the winning of the game.” Today, we are accustomed to highly sophisticated virtual opponents in gaming, however, in 1770, when Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen constructed his gaming machine, a seemingly inanimate counterpart that could win ad libitum was something utterly new. No longer was there a strict boundary between two players who competed against each other on a leveled playing field, but the constellation had changed. The game as a medium was no longer truly in the middle, but instead, the human player was pitted against a machine in control of the medium. However, as we learn in Walter Benjamin’s Concept of History, the human player was not actually competing with an automaton, but with a “hunchbacked dwarf […] who sat inside”. The player never realizes that it is him who is being played by, as Benjamin concludes, the puppet that is “historical materialism”. Kempelen’s automaton created an illusion that blurred the relations of power whilst leading the human player to believe that he is “just” playing. This talk inquires the potentials of gamification and whether it is a tool that gives back agency to the player and takes away the burdens of labor or whether it is a means that furthermore obscures the boundaries between the various stakeholders thus solidifying the role of the worker as cog in the (virtual) machinery.
Theme:Media Technologies
Room 6 Critical Conversations

The Plan for Liberation as Provided by the Robber Bridegroom Tale and the Struggle for Legitimacy
Daniel Padilla, -, -, California State University, San Bernardino, San Bernardino, California, United States
Overview: Marina Warner, in her piece titled The Old Wives’ Tale, argues that fairy tales have the potential to “exchange knowledge between an older voice of experience and a younger audience” (314). Warner's claim suggests that the loss of spoken folk tales and the denigration of fairy tales have silenced stories such as the Brother Grimm's The Robber Bridegroom, which in turn silences warnings within those stories for marginalized groups, such as women. Interpreted through Warner's critical lens, The Robber Bridegroom can be interpreted to mean that the oppression or liberation of women is contingent on available knowledge, passed down through the female characters, and whether it is silenced or vocalized. However, given the need for the Me-Too Movement, it is clear that the issues this tale means to address have not been effectively dealt with, as elements of a patriarchy are still firmly in place today. In fact, the Me-Too movement shows that the problem is much larger than many previously thought. Unfortunately, such media outlets as Fox News, using the same sociological mechanisms described by Warner in her piece of criticism, attempt to delegitimize the movement, forcefully vocalizing their opinion that the women of Me-Too are disingenuous. Relatedly in the civil rights movement, the powerful voice of W.E.B. Du Bois underscores the oppression of women, suggesting a parallel with the centrality of racism. Furthermore, Du Bois suggests that plans for the liberation of women and of “Blacks” share a pattern which is recognizable in The Robber Bridegroom.
Theme:Media Literacies

Stereotypical Depictions of Latino Criminality: Donald Trump’s Representation of U.S. Latinos in the Media during the MAGA Campaign
Eduardo Gonzalez, MA Student, The Wilf Family Department of Politics, New York University, New York, -, United States
Overview: Depictions of U.S. Latinos in the media and politics are often rooted in narratives of illegality, criminality, and immigration. By reproducing stereotypes of violence, lawlessness, and foreign identity, Latinos in the U.S. often exist in the social imaginary of media and political elites as being culturally and legally incompatible with conventional understandings of U.S. citizenship. Donald Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign was rooted in nativist politics that sought to criminalize legal and unauthorized immigrants by representing them as the largest threat to U.S. national security and the economy. This article employs a content analysis of all 74 speeches made during Donald Trump’s “Make America Great Again” presidential campaign to investigate how U.S. Latinos were depicted in the media and politics during the 2016 election cycle. The proceeding section situates the empirical findings within a broader time-series textual analysis, tracking Latino depictions across the eighteen-month campaign. The findings corroborate Trump’s anti-Latino and anti-immigrant positions, as well as a progression on Trump’s discussions of Mexico and NAFTA. Moreover, the analyses show that Trump exports U.S. Latino stereotypes to criminalize his Democratic opponent, Hillary Clinton. Taken together, this paper demonstrates how Trump refurbished and aggrandized Latino and immigrant narratives and stereotypes for the consumption of a 2016 audience.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Kaposi Sarcoma Lesions and the Social Construction of HIV/AIDS in the United States, 1983-1993
Kylo Patrick Hart, Professor, Department of Film, Television and Digital Media, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, United States
Overview: This presentation explores the role of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions — the bluish-purple blotches that typically appear on the bodies of individuals suffering from KS — in the social construction of HIV/AIDS in the United States during the period 1983 to 1993. It demonstrates how, from the moment that U.S. popular media and related forms of visual culture ‘discovered’ AIDS and began to regularly represent it, KS lesions served as a default way of depicting individuals in the advanced stages of AIDS and emphasizing their presumed ‘difference’ from everyone else in the same society. It further articulates a noteworthy series of qualitative shifts that occurred in using KS lesions to socially construct HIV/AIDS over the course of this ten-year period, to the extent that by the time the AIDS movie Philadelphia was released in 1993, KS lesions were being utilized to substantially challenge the pervasive 'us' versus 'them' dichotomy in U.S. society rather than to reinforce it.
Theme:Media Cultures

A Saviour Among Us: The Spectacularization of Emma Gonzalez
Monica Pauls, PhD Student, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary, Calgary, -, Canada
Overview: Postfeminist notions of idealized girlhood have found their way into activist culture, where discourses have constructed an image of girl activist who is assertive, dynamic and self-determining. These girls are celebrated by the media, as long as they conform to idealized notions of girlhood. What, then, can explain the media fascination with gun control advocate, Emma Gonzalez, whose alternative identities are far from such notions? Through a textual discourse analysis of news coverage of Gonzalez, this article explores the media framing of this young activist, arguing that it is a discursive strategy used to support society in coming to terms with a contentious social issue. And while this media coverage makes an alternative version of girl activist visible, the discourse also brings attention to who counts in youth activist culture.
Theme:Media Cultures

Oct 19, 2018
08:30-09:00 Conference Registration Desk Open / Mesa de inscripción abierta
09:00-09:20 Daily Update / Noticias del día
09:20-09:55 Plenary Session / Sesión plenaria - Berit Anderson CEO, Editor-in-Chief, Scout, Seattle, USA

"The Secret War: Understanding the Tactics and Strategies Behind Ongoing Information Warfare"  

As CEO and Editor-in-Chief, Berit oversees Scout’s business and editorial operations and keeps their business strategy, product and content on course. She is the former managing editor at Crosscut.com, a Seattle-based news site, where she reinvented journalism to help solve local problems and staged scenario planning games to help the city plan for cyber-attacks and deal with climate refugees. She brings more than 15 years of experience working with her family to run Strategic News Service, a predictive newsletter read by Bill Gates, Elon Musk, and Jeff Bezos, as well as the SNS FiRe conference, which brings together C-level technology executives, world-class scientists, and Oscar-winning documentary filmmakers to use science and technology to reshape our world.
09:55-10:25 Garden Conversation / Charlas de jardín

Garden Conversations are informal, unstructured sessions that allow delegates a chance to meet plenary speakers and talk with them at length about the issues arising from their presentation. When the venue and weather allow, we try to arrange for a circle of chairs to be placed outdoors.

Las charlas de jardín son sesiones informales no estructuradas que permiten reunirse con ponentes plenarios y conversar tranquilamente sobre temas derivados de su ponencia. Cuando el lugar y el clima lo permiten, se realizan en el exterior.
10:25-10:30 Transition Break / Pausa
Plenary Room Media Reflections

Configurations of Spaces, Bodies, and Agency in Virtual Environments: Analysis of Perceptions and Agency in the Argentine Patagonian Region
Melina Gaona, Postdoctoral Scholar, Centro de Estudios de Historia, Cultura y Memoria, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes
Veronica Sofia Ficoseco, Professor, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Argentina
Andrea Noelia Lopez, Postdoctoral Scholar, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina
Gonzalo Federico Zubia, Postdoctoral Scholar, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina

Overview: This work presents an introductory analysis on the constitution of spaces, corporal experience, and the perceptions of agency in virtual environments among university students in online careers in the National University of the Southern Patagonia, Argentina. The theoretical and methodological approach combines socio-technical analysis and critical analysis with a gender perspective. We explore different categories in the approach: the ways in which the body is set, online spatial accessibilities, and the possibilities of expression, self-recognition, and participation, that is to say, of agency. We take into account the contexts of uses and consumption of IT among popular sectors in the Patagonian region. A geographically isolated region with a low population density inhabited mainly by seasonal migrants whose affective and community belongings are kept online, and which has connectivity access rates above the country's average. Field data is developed based on a group of students in two online courses. We dig into the interactions in the institutional web environment and a private social network. We infer that it is possible to systematically describe from a gender perspective the interrelated relations between spaces, body and agency in the same group in different kind of environments, which will allow us to deepen into the knowledge of the located current characteristics of participation and habitability.
Theme:Media Theory
Room 1 Cultural Frames

Reporting Conflict in the Middle East: A Visual and Editorial Analysis of English versus Arabic News Channels
Dr. Sarah El Mokadem, Assistant Professor, Mass Communication, Misr International University, Cairo, -, Egypt
Overview: The Arab Region suffers from a state of unrest in many of its countries nowadays. In one week, there were church bombings in Egypt, chemical attacks in Syria, continued fighting in Iraq between the international alliance supporting the Iraqi troops and the Islamic State (IS) militants to restore the city of El Mosul, and for the first-time disagreements break between Golf countries. This paper analyzes the editorial and visual frames used to report three of the most significant events that took place in the area in regional and international news channels in both Arabic and English. The events being analyzed are the Palm Sunday church bombing in Egypt, boycotting in Qatar, and the Syrian chemical attacks on civilians. All available Arabic and English reports from international and regional news channels on Youtube concerning these incidents and its consequences are being analyzed. The researcher is interested in investigating how the different ideologies of these channels affect their reports about conflict situations in the Middle East.
Theme:Media Cultures

The Syrian Conflict in the New York Times Op-Ed Section: How Foreign Policy Influences American Journalism
Gabriel Huland, PhD Candidate, Media Studies, SOAS, University of London, London, London, United Kingdom
Overview: The Syrian revolution and civil war, which entered its eighth year, is one of the most reported conflicts of the last decades. The quality of this report, however, is still to be verified, as there is not a large number of studies about it. To what degree has the media succeeded in explaining the multiple causes and players involved in this complex war? To what extent has the American media, more specifically the NYT, produced and reproduced frames that reflect the conversation occurring within the American establishment about how to deal with such a humanitarian crisis? This article draws on the analysis of a number of The New York Times Op-Ed articles during March-April 2011 (the beginning of the conflict) and July-August 2014 (the emergence of ISIL) to address these and other questions. The results point out that the media coverage of the Syrian conflict is far from being impartial or objective and that the frames presented reflect the views shared by the American political elite. Likewise, they contain Orientalist misconceptions of the Middle East that are still widely present in the discourses produced in the West about the region. The idea that the US has a distinctive role to play in the democratization of Arab countries or that the conflict is mainly rooted in sectarian divisions, among others, can be found in the pieces analyzed.
Theme:Media Cultures

State Violence and Civilian Resistance in Social Media in Post-Revolutionary Iran and the Contemporary U.S.
Shabnam Piryaei, Assistant Professor, Broadcast and Electronic Communication Arts, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, -, United States
Overview: This paper primarily considers by what means contemporary social media is employed to enforce and to subvert state violence. I take a comparative approach, drawing correlations between social media use in post-Revolutionary Iran and in the contemporary U.S. At these two unexpectedly linked regions of activity, I focus on points of convergence and divergence in the modes through which media influences the way we exchange information, offer representations, mediate protest, and enforce, chronicle and resist state violence. I use an interdisciplinary approach to investigate how people are tracked and surveilled through social media, and how these tools that are utilized for tracking and surveillance are also mobilized for critical interventions in, and collaborations against, policing and state violence. Regarding Iran, I consider Negar Mottahedeh’s reading of Iran’s systematic technological repression, and the role of censorship in Iranian media, which leads citizens to develop new and less direct routes of transmitting news, images and videos—especially of protests and state violence against protestors. In the U.S., I explore the means by which social media operates as a form of propaganda and state-run media and how this intersects with the propaganda and corresponding violence in the Islamic Republic of Iran. I also reflect on how media activism can co-opt, or creatively and indirectly intervene in existing power structures.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 3 New Frontiers

Hip Hop Music as a Counter-Hegemonic Potential in Challenging the Power
Ramin Chaboki Darzabi, -, -, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, United States
Overview: In this paper, I study how hip-hop music is used as a tool to resist against the power and cultural hegemony in Iran and what themes hip-hop musicians use in their songs to challenge this cultural hegemony and power. It is difficult to find the beginning of hip-hop music in Iran since the government in Iran punished producers of western music especially hip-hop. Hip-hop in Iran was available on the black market, and it began to grow after the 2000s. The internet provided an excellent opportunity for music especially hip hop in Iran. Before the internet, hip-hop musicians could not access to the audience, and the internet helped them to solve this problem. Musicians in Iran must get official approval from the Ministry of Culture to operate legally in the music market, and hip-hop musicians cannot get this approval because hip-hop is considered against the Islamic values. These limitations encouraged youngsters and teenagers to use hip-hop music as an alternative media to challenge the power and cultural hegemony. They recorded music in private studios or their homes and shared them online. During the time, Iranian hip-hop developed its own identity and themes that mainly challenged the authority in Iran. In this research, I used thematic analysis to study themes in Iranian hip-hop songs, and examine the most frequent themes that hip-hop musicians discussed in their songs.
Theme:Media Cultures

Memes and Modi: A Content Analysis on the Role of Social Media in Politics
Afshana Hoque, Graduate Assistant, Media Relations, Illinois State University, Illinois, United States
Overview: Social media has emerged to be a new frontier in the communication world. It facilitates the dissemination of information in milliseconds. It reaches a large audience in a short time. Politicians have identified the value of social media and are now exploring its potentials. One of the social media tools that both politicians and the public are currently exploring are memes. Memes are visual tools that are used to convey a message. The power of social media communication facilitates easy sharing of information and gives politicians a chance to engage with their supporters at a personal level. The paper discusses some of the widely-known instances in history, that witnessed the use of social media for a political change. To understand, the role memes play, in circulating political messages, the 2014 Indian general election is taken as an example. An attempt was made to analyze the widely circulated political memes during the Indian general elections. The results highlighted the importance of humor in the memes, that seems to give these messages the ability to go viral within a short period. Considering the increasing use of new media tools in the social reforms of a country, the results of the study draws attention to the creative ways of triggering a passive audience. Efficient use of social media tools provides a platform upon which politicians can understand the needs of their people and hence respond in their manifestos to appeal the electorate.
Theme:Media Cultures

Emotional Truth, Historical Fact, and the Alternative Media of Literature
Laura Fasick, Professor, English, Minnesota State University Moorhead, Moorhead, -, United States
Overview: “Alt-media” today often whips up strong emotions by spreading “alternative facts” but as a literary scholar I have long prized a different kind of emotion-inducing, not entirely factual media. Like most literature teachers, I have believed that stories about fictional characters living through real-life events convey the emotional truth behind history’s dry facts. After all, if reading literature makes us more empathetic, then what better way to make vivid to students the magnitude of things as South Africa’s one-time apartheid system or China’s Cultural Revolution? Both apartheid and the Cultural Revolution ended decades before today’s students were born, but surely powerful literature captures for anyone the devastating effect of these movements, effects that linger even now. In recent years, however, I have been increasingly troubled by student reactions when I teach such novels. Students undeniably are moved by the narratives. They are also undeniably educated, since almost all of them declare that they had not previously known about the real-life horrors detailed in the books. However, their interest in the narrative arc involving the fictional characters quickly overshadows their interest in the historical context. Does the protagonist improve during the story? Then they ignore what state of society the novel shows. Students have repeatedly dismissed politics as “superficial” compared to family dynamics and individual happiness. Literature as a virtuous “alt-media” that sensitizes us to others’ challenges? I am no longer sure that it is.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 4 Here We Are

Reflections on Remembered Space: The Art of Having Political Agency Within The Community
David Sinfield, -, -, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Overview: This paper is concerned with workers’ stories and the typographical poetics of the eroding forces of time, materiality and the elements. The rationale for the study lies in a concern with art having political agency when it operates and is exhibited inside the communities of people whose lives are being interpreted. In such instances, the day-to-day community becomes the context of the artworks in preference to the arguably rarefied white walls of the art gallery. Sharp (2007), defines this approach to art generation and exhibition as ‘new genre public art’ arguing that it can operate as a means of ‘connecting’ a community. He suggests this is because it is a more participatory form of public art practice, wherein artists move to “engage with communities and existing social struggles, to develop collaboration and dialogue with residents” (p. 275). This paper will also consider the content of recorded interviews and the communication of the spoken word, moving image and typography, site recordings and the memories of what a place could be, to create a new form of audiovisual portraiture. These elements will work in synergy to form a collection of short film poems expressing the visual content to create portraits of the striking workers who worked in the now abandoned cool stores and freezing works at Patea, in Taranaki, New Zealand.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

A Discourse Analysis of Syrian Refugee Representations in Canadian News Media
Pamela Aimee Rigor, MA Student, School of Communication, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, -, Canada
Overview: This study explores the media representation of Syrian refugees and the media discourse surrounding their resettlement in Vancouver, Canada. It examines news articles in local community and major Vancouver newspapers published from September 2015 to October 2017. Using a combination of content and discourse analysis, it aims to uncover how these newspapers covered the arrival and resettlement of Syrian refugees in the country. The articles were analyzed and sorted into themes using the qualitative data analysis software, Nvivo 12. Based on the findings, the media discourse of Canada being a humanitarian country, as well as the idea of Syrian refugees having to publicly announce how grateful they are, is still present in the community newspapers. This seems to be done to counter the hateful narratives of citizens who might view them as abusing help and services provided by the community and government. However, compared to major newspapers, these community newspapers are very inclusive of refugee voices. Many articles interview Syrian refugees to share their personal stories of plight, survival, and starting a “new life” in Canada. These community newspapers, even though their representations are far from perfect, do address some aspects of the refugee resettlement issue and respond to their community’s needs. This study promotes awareness of how these individuals are represented in the media so we can, in turn, be aware the stereotypes present and the ideologies being perpetuated, and its implications on refugee laws and public response to the issue.
Theme:Media Cultures

Between Home and Host Cultures: Facebook as a Third Space
Lin Malone, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Overview: Transient migration has become increasingly commonplace, especially with higher education that sees large numbers of students travelling overseas to study each year. During this period, the students’ time and space is split between home countries and countries of study, and their use of internet and communication technologies (ICTs) enables co-presence across distance. Theoretically, social media sites serve as an ideal medium for these students to maintain past relationships and form new ones. However, in all actuality, the links between social media and integration are not so simple, especially considering how often international students struggle with integrating into their host societies. This research study examines the relationship between social media use and the integration and social inclusion of international students in Finland. Focusing on Bhabha’s work on hybridity (1994), this paper positions Facebook to represent a Third Space where multiple cultures intersect. It then draws on Berry’s (1997) theory of acculturation and its critiques, as well as Gomes’ work on “home-based” and “identity-based” networks (2014; 2015) to study how Facebook plays both social and functional roles in the acculturation of international students, as they transition from home to host culture. Through a visual internet ethnographic study of Facebook profiles and interviews with international students, this study investigates how these transitions are mediated through the social networking site of Facebook and located within the digital identities constructed on the students’ individual profile pages.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 5 Social Media Links

Comparative Twitter Content Analysis of International Broadcasters: A Case Study of Boko Haram in 2014
Amon Rémy Mallet, Social Media Editor , French for Africa , Deutsche Welle , Bonn, -, Germany
Overview: Under which conditions are some tweets more likely to be forwarded or retweeted than others? This is the core question of the present research, as retweet stays for the most important feature for information propagation on Twitter. Drawing on my Master thesis in which I have analyzed 157 tweets from international media broadcasters accounts this paper reflects on "retweetability“ (the likelihood of a tweet to be forwarded or shared) of news media companies. Research studies on factors that influence “retweetability” have largely targeted the marketing field or the accounts of prominent individuals. I elaborate in this study on the understanding of virality on Twitter by examining tweets displayed by four international media broadcasters (CNN, BBC, Al-Jazeera and RT) in 2014 when covering the attacks of the Nigerian religious group Boko Haram. Variables mobilized to give an answer to our query includes sources, emotions, and other textual attributes.
Theme:Media Technologies

Communication Dynamics of Candlelight Protests in Korea: Tweets Analysis using Dynamic Topic Modeling
Prof. Choi SunYoung, Special Appointment Professor, Creative Academy of Eco Science, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-gu, SEOUL, South Korea
Eunji Ko, Ph.D, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, -, South Korea
Miss Kumhee Jung, Graduate student , Interdisciplinary Program of EcoCreative, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Seodaemun-gu, South Korea

Overview: The candlelight protests of south Korea from 2016 to 2017 became a new milestone in the history of modern democracy. First, we set an unprecedented record of scale. The first candlelight vigil attendance was about 50,000 people, but over seventeen million people participated twenty-three times. Second, these mass demonstrations were held peacefully for seven months without armed conflict or bloodshed. The protests were held at various events such as rock music performances and free speech on the outdoor stage, and many family members participated together in a festive atmosphere. Third, the peaceful candlelight protests in Korea are the result of Internet grassroots democracy. The first candlelight vigils in Korea in the twenty-first century began in 2002 when a citizen reporter from the Internet newspaper ‘Oh my News’ proposed a memorial service for the schoolgirls who were victimized by US military vehicles. This candlelight protest has been displayed for several months in a form of peaceful assembly. From now on, the value of 'peace' is very important as Korea's unique candlelight demonstration culture from 2004 against former President Roh Moo-hyun's impeachment issues, the urging of renegotiation of FTA in 2008, Gwanghwamun protests to identify the truth of ‘Sewol’ Ferry tragedy from 2014 to 2016. This study analyzes tweets from the first through sixth of Korea’s candlelight vigils in 2016. We analyze tweets from this period with Dynamic Topic Modeling (DTM) method, exploring how massive rallies can be held regularly and peacefully every week.
Theme:Media Cultures

YouTube Affordances and Use Practice: A Case Study of Russian Youth Audience Usage Patterns
Olga Solovyeva, Lecturer, Faculty of communications, media and design; department of integrated communications, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, -, Russian Federation
Overview: Current research is focused on technological influence on social structures and practices, particularly, on YouTube effects on content consumers. The study relies on the framework of affordances theory merged with uses and gratifications approach. Applying affordance theory, we structure the research to find out the drivers for technological shift: consumption patterns, digital architecture and aspects of user engagement. Moreover, integrating uses and gratifications approach to research design we depict motivations of users to consume the content and engage in digital communication. Data has been collected through two consequent stages: first an online survey was run to gather the data regarding main trends of media consumption (N=347, university students, convenient sample). For the second stage, we conducted 40 in-depth interviews with content consumers of YouTube. The research depicts and discusses major motifs of users: entertainment, parasocial connection with bloggers and searches for new information. Still, the perceived affordances of the platform structure usage patterns, as individuals are focused on the content consumption and tend to avoid further discussion or online interaction with the interface or other users. On the contrary, YouTube is perceived as the trusted source of information, which is further taken to the offline or familiar for the user online surrounding. The study opens the discussion on the further potential of YouTube as a collaborative platform for societal change and argues on the influence of digital culture to the practices of elaboration and deliberation of information.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 6 Shifting Terrain

Has the Message Defined the Medium?: Implications for Fake News and Sensationalism
Evan Johnson,
Nupoor Jalindre, -, -, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States

Overview: “Fake news,” a term that gained traction during the 2016 United States Presidential Election, is “frequently used to describe a political story which is seen as damaging to an agency, entity, or person, and seems to have currency in terms of general news.” Fake news has made the search for reliable information on the web a precarious exercise as political and economic forces are working against would-be seekers of truth. Scholars have built models to detect the mechanistic propagation of fake news and identify its characteristics. Marshall McLuhan was famous for the phrase “The medium is the message,” which denotes the ways in which the medium influences how a message is perceived. However, there has been little research that looks at the inverse of this relationship--how the message affects the perception of the medium. Studying this perception can help technical communicators analyze and design the medium that they work with. Paradoxically, data from the 2017 Edelman Trust Barometer suggest that there is a growing distrust for sites generally accepted as being the most authentic, while non-traditional sources with higher risk of invalidity are gaining confidence. We plan to examine this trend in-depth using a controlled experimental design that tests participants’ reactions to five different news sources: traditional media, social media, owned media, search engines, and online-only media, in order to determine whether it is the message or the medium that the distrust is being directed toward.
Theme:Media Theory

Fear & (In)Action: The Emotional Manipulation of Dissent in Contemporary National Political Discourse
Cindy Dang, Fellow, Center for Experiential Learning, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Overview: In light of the media toxicity of the recent presidential political process in the United States, it is imperative to recognize and understand the direct impact such negativity has on the health of our democracy. Political manipulation of fear in media promotes a dynamic wherein internal emotional reactions overwhelm both internal and external intellectual consideration, thus legitimizing, unleashing and exacerbating an unassailable marginalization mentality. By looking at President Trump’s public iterations that target non-white Americans, the fear associated with military actions in the media, and the psychological reasons Americans start to discredit and hate each other, not only can we better understand this trend, but also begin building effective tools to combat these political ploys and restore democratic conventions of thought and conversation to the American public. Considering Anat Shenker’s research on the inefficacy of using fear to combat fear and Gina Roussos’ research on how fear makes people react irrationally, we can see how the gridlock of public political discourse only appears to be solidifying. Therefore the explicit use of emotive anchors as entry points for intellectual responses by responsible members of the media, in direct opposition to the traditional ‘objectiveness’ of the journalistic field, may set a standard by which both politicians and citizens may resume in a single “conversation” rather than two, loud competing monologues.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Digital Humanities in the Military Domain: Thick Data Approach to Military Facebook Fan Pages
Tsung-Lin Lu, Graduate student, Journalism, National Defense University , Taipei, Taiwan
Overview: A total of 6,695 posts on the fan pages of six military units under the Ministry of National Defense (MND) in 2017 were considered the “digital field” in this study. Mixed research methods were conducted to cultivate this digital field. CORPRO, a corpus of Chinese text, developed by National Taiwan University was used as a data analyzing tool that was integrated into thick description of anthropological method. In addition, grounded theory method was also employed to deepen data description; in-depth interviews were conducted with six administrators of the fan pages and one military general who was responsible for public affairs policy. The four theoretical perspectives of public relations, crisis communication, gatekeepers, and agenda-setting were verified in this research. The corpus analysis results derived from using CORPRO show that ROC Armed Forces, established the ideology of qin xun jing lian (diligent drill and robust training) through Facebook. Besides, analysis of the phrase guan bing (military personnel) indicated that the cognition of qin xun jing lian exhibited personnel-oriented and strength-demonstration-oriented transitions. Furthermore, the frequent use of “today” and “earlier” does not merely show temporal differences. When examined under social contexts, the phrases contain connotations of differences in organizational management capacities. Through open, axial, and selective coding in grounded theory, the interview data were analyzed to discern four contexts in ROC Armed Forces digital humanities, verifying the digital footprints of ROC Armed Forces. The results were subsequently named as “The Model of Facebook Fan Page Constructed for Armed Forces of ROC.”
Theme:Media Technologies
Plenary Room
Television Binge-watching Habits in the Interactive Media Environment
Prof. Azza Ahmed, Professor, College of Communication and Media Sciences, Zayed University , Dubai , Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Overview: This study investigates binge-watching habits among a sample of Emiratis. It examines the expected outcomes for binge watching and the possibilities of anticipating regret after watching. A constructed questionnaire designed to collect data from a sample of 229 Emiratis living in Abu Dhabi. The results showed that there is a positive significant correlation between expected outcomes, self-regulation deficiency, anticipating regret, and binge watching. The findings also revealed that most respondents tend to binge watch alone more than with others. While gender, marital status, and education do not affect the level of binge watching, age was an important variable in predicting binge-watching levels. It was found that the lower the age the more respondents might be deficient in self-regulating their binge watching.
Theme:Media Cultures

Political Discourse on Social Media Among Saudi Females: Examining Spiral of Silence Online
Khulood Miliany, Assistant Professor of Mass Communication, Media and Communication, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, -, Saudi Arabia
Overview: The spiral of silence theory was initially developed within a mass-mediated context, and it has been widely appreciated and critiqued in several forms by scholars of political communication. Therefore, this study examines the spiral of silence theory under conditions of various conditions of online conversations, such as the decreased fear of isolation allowed by anonymity, undermine some of the fundamental components of Noelle-Neumann’s model. It is exploring Saudi females' willingness to express opinions online and offline and tests how the constructs proposed by the spiral of silence theory work in each setting.
Theme:Media Cultures
12:10-13:00 Lunch / Almuerzo
Plenary Room Focus Discussions

Computerized Intimacy in Politics: Direct Mail and the Barry Goldwater Campaign in 1964
Takahito Moriyama, Tallahassee, Florida, United States
Overview: This research analyzes the political impact of direct mail (DM) that has been overshadowed by mass media. The idea of DM was based on personalization and intimacy, which derived from an advertising strategy of direct marketing in the midcentury. DM differed from broadcast in that, instead of circulating same information to the mass, it sent personalized messages to prospective supporters according to a huge body of personal information recorded by computers. My presentation examines how DM influenced grassroots activism, investigating the Barry Goldwater campaign’s fundraising in the 1964 presidential election. In the 1960s when liberals dominated mass media, conservatives employed the new medium on behalf of Goldwater. Although Goldwater was overwhelmingly defeated in the race, his campaign achieved the first successful DM solicitation, collecting money from a great number of small contributors. While previous scholars of the conservative movement have explored the mobilization of conservatives in Sunbelt suburbs, I will excavate 1960s “big data” politics on Madison Avenue, which transformed “grassroots” movement from face-to-face interactions toward loose networks of various individuals. This historical research is an attempt to look at how the new communication technology affected political participation during the late twentieth century.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

(In)visibility of the Plus Size Body: How Plus Size Women Use Blogs to Create Community and Voice
Dr. Kathryn Wolfe, -, -, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, United States
Traci Baxley, -, -, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, United States

Overview: Strides have been made to include plus sizes within the fashion industry; yet, the plus-size body continues to be marginalized within a broader context. By understanding the experiences of plus-size female bloggers, and their creation of an online community for alienated individuals, the Body Positivity Movement (BPM) can be understood. This critical look into the public, online lives of plus-size bloggers serves as a counternarrative that relocates them from the margins to the “mainstream media landscape.” This community of activists utilizes blogging to establish and bolster an online platform. According to Cho (2012) blogging creates a “safe place to share your voice and finding a community” (p. 7). Blogging provides an avenue for plus-size individuals to find an audience and community in which to belong. Thus, these bloggers became social activists encouraging cultural representation and inclusion within media. Using a womanist lens (Collins, 1996), we examine the power of collective agency and the consciousness of raising a marginalized group. Womanism, is used to explore how the positionality, intersectionality, and the invisibility of plus-size females is both personal and political. Moreover, this will provide insight into how the BPM can aid girls and women in developing a positive body image.
Theme:Media Cultures

A New Frontier: Taking Students from a Personal Virtual Atmosphere to a Multimedia Classroom
Willmaria Miranda, Acting Managing Assistant Director- Writing Center, Nancy Thompson Library/English, Kean University, Union, -, United States
Christina Mastroeni, Lecturer-English, -, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, United States
Malcolm Evans, Adjunct-Communication, Kean University, United States

Overview: How do we bridge the gap between students who engage in media in their personal lives (twitter, facebook, blogs, etc.), and using these same media in the classroom? Students show they are hesitant, and sometimes even unwilling, to take a familiar platform outside of their comfort zone. Students may not see the connection between the strategies they use to communicate in their private online personas, and strategies they could use in their more academic communications. Their comfort in media use varies depending on the audience they’re communicating with. This presentation seeks to explore ways to bridge this gap through taking students out of their technological comfort zone. We plan to take the knowledge students have, and transfer it to their academic or professional setting. We can train educators, and show them how to explore new technological adaptations for conversational settings and give students the skills needed to apply those new strategies to a variety of situations. Additionally, the presenters examine why this gap exists and explore the intersection between social media and conversation in the classroom. Incorporating meaningful use of media allows instructors to provide clear examples of how it is used for academic pursuits. These hybrid conversations continue after classes conclude. The goal moving forward is to provide a multimedia classroom which allows students to use their organic styles of communications to contribute to larger conversations that exist outside of our physical and online educational spaces (e.g. Blackboard and Google Classroom).
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 1 Workshop Room 1

Interactive Data Visualization: Learn How to Create Engaging and Interactive Visualizations with Tableau
Tina Korani, Assistant Professor of Media Dsign, Journalism and Mass Communication, San Jose State University, San Jose, California, United States
Overview: Data visualization refers to all the techniques used to convert information into visual objects. In this workshop, we start by discussing the importance of data visualization for journalists and designers. Then, we’ll see some real-life examples of misleading graphs. Next, we’ll provide an introductory overview and hands-on practice with making data visualizations. I’ll teach how to design attractive data visualizations for effective communication in Tableau. Tableau is a free software available on Windows, Mac, and Linux. Participants are encouraged to bring their laptops. Participants without a laptop can still attend the workshop and work with other participants who have a laptop. No prior experience is required. During this workshop participants will learn: How to avoid some common graphical mistakes; how to create charts, graphs, and dashboards from provided datasets in Tableau; how to create quick filters and parameter controls in Tableau; principals of design (contrast, white space, hierarchy, etc.). This workshop is good for you if you are an absolute beginner who has little or no prior experience with coding or design experience or have a solid coding background, but you want to learn how to make your visualizations more attractive.
Theme:Media Technologies
Room 2 Innovation Showcase

Empowering Consumers: How Mobile Is Driving Transformation in Africa
Carla Worth,
Overview: Technology may be ubiquitous in the connected "first world" but how do marketers reach out to a largely untapped "third world," on the brink of transformation, with a desire to connect? While the Internet laid the foundation for the future, it is the mobile phone that is redefining how brands and consumers alike communicate or connect. In acknowledging that "connectiveness" drives learning and essentially transformation, mobile phones in Africa have the potential to provide consumers with personal connections. It also allows for informed decision-making and the potential to open up a new world. Despite high data costs and the restrictive access to technology, mobile technology is growing rapidly. Practice-based research, employing analytics, has allowed an opportunity for a brand to tell a story with which consumers can connect. Focusing on emotive, personal, and authentic content, prompts belief in the value of connecting and engaging. This innovation showcase is a means to showcase technology as a conduit to drive change.
Theme:Media Technologies
Room 4 Virtual Poster Room 4

Cultivation Theory and the Evolution of Justice in the Facebook Era
Chelsea Slack, -, -, Clemson University, Clemsson, South Carolina, United States
Overview: It is hard to deny social media and its omnipresence is affecting users. The question is no longer if social media affects us, but how. Are these effects superficial, or do they deal with users’ most foundational values? To answer these questions, this study applied cultivation theory to Facebook, and social media in general. With 467 respondents, the results of this survey indicated that as Facebook and general social media use increases, levels of cultivation increase marginally as well. Demographics also played a major role in levels of cultivation, with certain groups being more susceptible to cultivation than others. In terms of perceptions concerning users’ views on justice, equality, and fairness, overall higher levels of both Facebook and social media use were related to respondents more greatly reporting beliefs that the United States is a place of justice and equality. In summary, this project found that social media, Facebook specifically, cultivates ideas, feelings, and perceptions in the minds of its users – some positive, and some negative. Lastly, this study contends that application of cultivation theory should finally move beyond television and into the realm of social media.
Theme:Media Theory

Using Sentiment Analysis to Understand Readers’ Preferences
Yick Kan Kwok, Teaching Fellow, Faculty of Design and Environment, (Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong) THEi
Overview: Sentiment is a combination of word choice, tone of voice and writing style, which allows the same news to be described as either positive or negative. With the assistance of modern machine learning technology, Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the most effective method for sentiment analysis from natural language. Using NLP, positiveness of a news can be analyzed and provide an overview of tone and manner used. Using Sentiment Intensity Analyzer (SIA) of Python’s Natural Language Toolkit to evaluate newspaper headlines and contents, the positiveness of the news can be uncovered. While the initial accuracy of the analyzer with default language database is approximately 80%, the accuracy of the sentiment analysis can be enhanced by supplying more training data, which are the news. By cross-referencing the view count of the news, it greatly facilitates journalists to learn about the likes and dislikes of readers. It is also particularly useful for webmasters of news portal to arrange personalized news feed for each reader by rearranging the news layout and display order according to their sentiment analysis results. While the initial work is limited to English news due to limitations of SIA, it is hoped that the system can be extended to other languages in future and offer opportunities for further work on reader preference analysis.
Theme:Media Technologies

The Educational Value of Internet Communication Space frpm the Perspective of Its Users
Longina Strumska Cylwik, PhD, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, -, Poland
Overview: This study shows the positive and negative aspects of education in Internet communication spaces as perceived by users. The research question what educational values do respondents see in Internet communication spaces and what meanings do they ascribed to it. Particularly important is what and how users learn about themselves, other people, and the surrounding world. The main attention is directed to the specificity of the space in question which, as it turns out, is not one-dimensional, unambiguous, and neutral, but is rooted in the culture of immediacy, interactivity, and anonymity (which naturally entails certain consequences). It is not surprising, therefore, that thanks to it we observe significant changes in the social world regarding communication relations, people's attitude to knowledge and education (for they not only acquire and exchange knowledge, but also create it). Such a phenomenon results, inter alia, from the reverse, two-way and interactive nature of Internet communication spaces, which at the same time allows actors on the cyber-communication stage to play creative roles online, as well as offline. Thanks to that, they can become a kind of "spiritus movens" (inspirers, originators, creators of this space). Its representative example is the communication activity of respondents on Internet forums, social networking websites, and blogs, resulting not only in the usual exchange of information, views, discussions and comments, but very often going beyond the conventional communication and education practices.
Theme:Media Technologies

(Re)Constructing Collective Memories for Strengthening National Pride Through the Narrative of New Year’s Galas (2008-2018)
Jingyi Zhu, -, -, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH , United States
Mindi Rhoades, assistant professor, The Ohio State University

Overview: Since 1983, the Chinese New Year’s Gala, or “Chunwan,” has been an annual live variety-show broadcast by China Central Television on Lunar New Year’s Eve. Even though it has a large audience and attracts nation and world-wide attention, there is little research critically reflecting on this significant phenomenological and cultural event. Employing a social constructionist perspective and the concept of collective memory (Halbwachs, 1992), this study examines how Chunwan (2008-2018) functions as a text to mediate national beliefs through (re)constructing collective memories of diverse Chinese audience groups.This qualitative study relies primarily on fifty-five hours of video for a decade of Chunwan broadcasts (approximately fifty-five hours). The video data was (re)coded multiple times using collective memory and social constructivist concepts then analyzed for patterns and discrepancies. The study analyzes ways Chunwan (re)constructs collective intergenerational Chinese memories that reinforce nationalism and a shared past. With shared memory, the boundary of private memory and collective memory is blurred and the two are fused as one. Additionally, the study uncovers that through narrative of individual and national success, group “venting,” and traumatic experiences, national pride is strengthened. The findings draw attention to the political and cultural functions of media texts.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 5 Virtual Lightening Talk Room 5

Emotional Public Engagement in a Post-truth Era: Voice and Sound in Contemporary Talk Shows
Dr. Irati Agirreazkuenaga, -, -, University of the Basque Country, Greater Bilbao, -, Spain
Dr. Ainara Larrondo,
Dr. Simon Peña,

Overview: In the post-truth era, where emotions are much more influential in shaping public opinion than are objective facts, it is expected that citizen’s participation, whether offline or online, in programs dealing with issues of democratic consequences, are overflowing with this emotional component. While radio programs that appeal for popular culture, such as phone-ins or entertainment magazines, might not often delve into social problems with serious complexity, they offer structures that let audiences creatively start thinking of private and public concerns, a practice by which engagement can go beyond the popular to influence political perceptions and values (Dahlgren, 2009). Given that we live in an era consisting of lies that can go viral mainly through a media alliance, particularly with social media, this paper ought to detect the presence of feeling-driven and thought-driven comments in the mediatized messages of ordinary people. This paper contributes with a method that studies the form and content of conductors and participants, correlating the used emotion and topic. In this work, besides the content, the voice is a key factor. Thus, it will look at which type of emotions predominate depending on who talks (presenters or journalists that guide the program, citizens participating); and the topic those presenters, journalists, and participants are talking about. This research is an approach to the construction of an innovative methodology that correlates emotional-based and content-based variables. The study uses a semi-qualitative methodology based on content analysis of citizen’s contributions, as well as live managing of them– and in-depth interviews with main editors. The selected case studies are non-news programs that deal with political, social and entertaining issues that call for live online as well as offline participations through different channels, also known as TV talk shows or phone-in radio programs.
Theme:Media Cultures, 2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Animals Australia: Shifting the Tide of Animal Activist Communications within Australia
Dr. Jane Mummery, -, -, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, -, Australia
Assoc. Prof. Debbie Rodan,

Overview: In a state such as Australia with strong protections for primary producers and an alignment with a broadly neoliberal agenda, arguments by animal activists can receive short shrift in the public sphere. This is illustrated with the increase within Australia of calls for ag-gag laws and by the public labelling of animal activists as acting to the detriment of the Australian national interest. In this paper we detail the highly effective media communications strategies of "Animals Australia," a peak national body concerned with strengthening animal welfare policies and practices across Australia. "Animals Australia," as we show through discursive analysis of their campaigns and mainstream responses, has been able to access and engage both mainstream and alternative media in their communications strategies so as to develop a broad support base of everyday Australians and engage them in a range of large-scale protest activities. They have not just shifted the tenor of Australian attitudes towards livestock animals, but achieved policy change.
Theme:Media Cultures, 2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Domestic Spatiality : Changes and Permanences in the Information Age
Juan Lozano De Poo, Architect, Freelance, San Luis Potosí, -, Mexico
Guadalupe Salazar González, Mexico

Overview: Spatiality is the central theme of this research, demarcated by the domestication of the Internet within the middle-class household. This phenomenon is addressed from three constitutive realities of spatiality: habituality, interaction, and presence. Together they state how coexistence with digital space has produced profound changes in the way people inhabit at the household scale. Spatiality, under this approach, studies the production of social space based on the use given to physical space through the shift of meaning that lived space has had, before and after the assimilation of the Internet as the dominant communication system. How can domestic spatialities produced by the superposition of digital space as a new layer of social space be explained? The methodology designed, based on semi-structured interviews and surveys, allowed the interpretation of quantitative and qualitative data collected directly from selected homes and two control groups of college students from New York (SUNY) and Mexico (UASLP). The findings of the study reveal that everyday life practices are nowadays performed simultaneously in two types of spaces; one defined by the ever-present, being online and connected to the Internet; the other, configured by the physical-symbolical places of human existence. This new condition has modified the configuration process of spatiality, as observed through family tensions and members’ behavior, re-signification, compression, and indistinct use of domestic space and time. The implications of the results provide a rich source for socio-spatial studies through a complex understanding of interrelations between individuals, digital space, and lived space at home.
Theme:Media Theory

Satirizing Net Neutrality: Last Week Tonight
Angela Hart, -, -, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States
Overview: "Last Week Tonight" with John Oliver aired a long-form piece on the FCC and net neutrality spanning roughly thirteen minutes and eighteen seconds on June 1, 2014. Oliver painted the current state of the Internet as not just practical, but functional, “The Internet in its current form is not broken and the FCC is currently taking steps to fix that.” Oliver included the FCC website link prominently so that viewers would note and use the url. Immediately following the episode, the FCC received so much web-related traffic and interest that their website crashed (Felder 2016). Oliver’s FCC piece demonstrated the show’s influence not only educating viewers in regards to the online debate, but invigorating their audience to become active in a cause. I conducted a close-read of two segments which "Last Week Tonight" aired on net neutrality, noting dialogue, news box images, incorporated news footage, and the positions addressed. I utilized a framing perspective on the information relayed in the programs in regards to net neutrality.
Theme:Media Technologies

"Necestando Al Otro" (Needing the Other): Exploring Audience Presence in the Context of Installation
Prof. David Schwittek, Artist, City University of New York, New York, New York, United States
Prof. Alyshia Galvez, -, -, City University of New York, New York, New York, United States

Overview: "Necesitando al Otro" is a multi-channel, interactive video installation exploring the Mexican migration. It detects the relative audience presence and, detecting a complete absence, enters the inactive state. In this state the video channels enter a phase of data corruption, analogous to the increasing denial of migrant struggles in our society. When the installation detects a partial presence (e.g. one or two people relatively nearby), it enters the partial state. In this state, the corruption of the video channels becomes increasingly more subtle, and the viewing less challenging. As the audience increases in number, the installation enters the active state, wherein video corruption becomes unnoticeable. This interplay of obscurity and visibility is designed to interrogate the Western Hemisphere’s indifference to the struggles of the Mexican migrant, and that an active interest in – and attention to – these struggles can provide a clearer understanding of our shared humanity.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 6 Workshop Room 6

The New No Man's Land: Conflict Escalation in Social Media Comments Sections
Angela Lee, Undergraduate Student, Communication, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
Overview: Comments sections on social media have become sites of mass conflict between strangers of differing opinions. The Washington Post and National Political Report are two of many sites that have recently shut down comments sections due to high levels of offensive, hateful, and rude language. The present study explored the ways that conflict unfolds and escalates in social media comment threads. The primary source was a set of 300 reply chains (4,500 comments) from the Facebook pages of CNN, Fox News, and the New York Times. Twenty recent articles were randomly selected from each news page and the top five most-liked comments on each article were analyzed. Each comment was coded for the presence and frequency of ad hominem attacks, outgroup attacks, threats, accusations of bias, use of personal experience as evidence, and expression of disagreement vs. support. Quantitative and qualitative analyses found that the structural components of social media comments sections enable the instigation and escalation of conflict by increasing the frequency with which online users encounter factors that incite and amplify conflict. Attempts to reconcile or resolve conflict were significantly low – almost all conflicts ended with the abrupt exit of a minority opinion and the categorical dismissal of alternative viewpoints.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
13:45-14:00 Break
Plenary Room Connected Lives

The Underrepresentation of Elder Women in Prime Time Television Advertising on Puerto Rico: Traits of Elderly on TV Commercials in Puerto Rico
Dr. Miriam Ramirez, Associate Professor, Communication, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao, Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico
Overview: Primarily my academic interest revolves around how to interpret media messages; particularly studying the images, inferences, stereotypes, and prejudices involved in the media with special attention to television advertising. My particular research focus is on the representation of the elderly in Prime Time television advertising on the island of Puerto Rico. This study includes all commercials issued over two weeks, 280 hours, on four TV channels. We found that only sixty-six advertisements consisted of images of people over 55+ as a talent within 524 commercials (and of these sixty-six ads only six were exclusive of elders). We use quantitative and qualitative methodology. The Nielsen Company and some television producers provided data. The analysis of 524 publicity advertisements was made with two templates constructed to collect the data. The first is based on an authorized adaptation of the Global Media Monitoring Project, and the second template consisted of a table containing forty-four variables identified under the theme: stereotypes. Through these data, we were able to scrutinize the references of the context in which the elderly were represented and the stereotypes in those television advertising in Puerto Rico. The subrepresentation of elder women in TV commercials was patent. The elder presence on television promotions is not related to the percentage of the population of people over 55. Positive traits, negative traits, themes privileged by advertisers, the presence of elderly alone or accompanied, images, frequency, advertisers, and contradictions are considered.
Theme:Media Cultures

Jewish and Arab Femicide in Israeli Hebrew Newspapers: A Case of Symbolic Boundary Work
Ina Filkobski, -, -, McGill University, -, Canada
Overview: This paper explores how newspapers cover the murder of women by family members and intimate partners. We compared the coverage of Jewish and Arab victims and culprits in three major Israeli newspapers, examining media’s contribution to the construction of symbolic boundaries between minority and dominant social groups. We conducted a systematic qualitative content analysis, examining a sample of 459 articles published between 2013 and 2015. We found that the murder of Jews by family members or intimate partners was framed as a shocking and unusual event, a result of the individual personality or pathology of the culprit. Conversely, when Arabs killed family members, coverage focused on the culture of the ethnic group, described as traditional, violent, and patriarchal. A systematic comparison we conducted showing the varying degree of detail, empathy, and contextualization in the description of culprits, depending on their ethno-national identities. Articles on Jewish culprits included much more detail and depth. In these cases, every aspect of the perpetrator’s personal history was commonly examined, as newspapers cited psychiatry experts, family members, childhood friends, employers, and neighbors. Such treatment was mostly absent in the case of Arab culprits. Our findings also show that towns, villages, and neighborhoods characterized predominantly by an Arab population are constructed as dangerous and violent sites while predominantly Jewish locales remain merely places where violence took place. This tendency to associate the entire locale with violence was evident in generalizing headlines and emphasis on previous crimes that occurred in the locale. In articles on murders by Arabs, neighbors and community leaders felt the need to forcefully condemn the violence and highlight the otherwise peaceful nature of their village or town. Such renunciations often carried an apologetic tone, suggesting that the community needs to repeatedly refute the idea that it supports violence. Conversely, in cases of Jewish murders, the majority of community reactions are simply an attempt to deal with a tragedy We propose that the treatment of femicide by the newspapers contributes to the notion that Arab and Muslim cultures, religions, and nationalities are essentially misogynistic and adhere to norms of honor and shame that are radically different from those of modern societies, such as the Jewish-Israeli one. We suggest that the differential media and public treatment of femicide serves as one of the primary sites where the Jewish community draws and asserts the boundaries between “(Jewish) Israeli society” and its “others.” The portrayal of femecide can be seen as a site through which the assumed “hierarchy of moral worth” (Lamont and Molnár 2002:168) of Jewish-Israeli and Arab cultures is being reaffirmed, allowing Jews in Israel to claim superiority in other fields of life. While our analysis focuses on Israel, studies on the United States, Canada, and various European countries with ethnically and racially heterogeneous populations, make it clear that the stigmatisation and exclusion of visible, religious, and language minorities are not unique to the Israeli case (Bail 2008; Korteweg and Yurdakul 2010; Shier and Shor 2016; Wimmer 2013).
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 1 Imagine All the People

Media and Female Politicians: “Intentional Ambiguity” as Strategy in the Image-making Mechanism
Linda Florence Matheson, -, -, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States
Overview: With the expansion of social media, clothed images adopt an increasingly significant role in disseminating complex, provocative, and ambiguous messages. Recently this ambiguity has been particularly evident with female politicians whose fashion choices produce a colorful, if not clear, atmosphere in which dress performs politically as "persuasive art." Indeed, it appears that ambiguity is intentionally embedded in the image-making process of these political leaders (Choy, 2015; Givhan, 2007; McNair, 2011). To consider our hypothesis, we examine images of Hillary Clinton, 2016 US Democratic Presidential Nominee, Angela Merkel, German Chancellor, and Theresa May, Great Britain’s Prime Minster. Our objects of analysis are items of dress culled from media images along with published articles. Our method follows Aspers’ (2001, 2006) phenomenological approach employing meaning structures with pertinent contrasts, reciprocal observations, and performance expectations. Although Beauvoir penned "The Ethics of Ambiguity in 1948," ambiguity has intrigued ancient philosophers like Aristotle ("Sophistical Refutations," 1984) as well as modern scholars like Simmel, Levine, and Butler. Little print, however, has been allotted to its intentional form. Thus, following Hebdige’s (1979) premise "style as intentional communication," we aim to fill this gap while extending aesthetic and media studies theory.
Theme:Media Cultures

Visualized Pedestrian Speech Act Analysis: How Taiwan Facebook Users Employ Places for Self Performance
Prof. Hsiaomei Wu, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan
Overview: This study examines Facebook users’ check-in acts based on de Certeau’s perspectives on pedestrian speech acts. In collaborating with the technical assistant from Computer Science, the researcher first developed a visualization tool called VPSA to delineate the discrete check-in patterns for individual users. Twenty-five Taiwan subjects, age from thirteen to forty, were then recruited allowing us to examine their check-in acts with VPSA for further in-depth interviews. The results show that users effectively employ "place" to fulfill their interests and desires. In addition to travel and food, Facebook places are typically used as a marketing strategy or simply as the emotional outlet (e.g. virtual check-ins). The timeline practices of VPSA also reveal how everyday life routines influence their check-in acts. Users tend to check in at the time possibly inviting more likes rather than to check in at present. Finally, all users reflexively realize that their check-in practices are self-performance, not real everyday lives, although they don’t distinguish the performing self from the real self any more.
Theme:Media Technologies

Es Bueno o No Bueno? : A Critical Analysis on Mexican American Memes on Social Media
Ariana Cano,
Overview: It is just a meme? In the digital age, memes create personal and communal value. These memes, however, also reinforce generalizations of a community and could potentially internalize oppression. This research will use an Ideological Critical approach through a textual analysis to analyze trending memes characterizing the Mexican American community. It will focus on the shared platform emphasizing comedic aspects of the Mexican American life as well as the perpetuation of stereotypes of the Mexican American community.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 2 Strategic Approaches

Sustainability Communication in Technology Industry: The Use of Social Media Networks and Corporations' Websites to Communicate Environmental Practices
Majd Mariam, Ph.D. student, School of Journalism and Communication, University of Oregon, Eugene, -, United States
Overview: Social media has the capabilities to facilitate communication. Several companies have adopted and developed sustainable practices. Yet, the use of the social media to communicate those practices varies among countries, companies, and industries. This paper explores how four companies in the technology industry addressed their environmental practices through official websites and social media platforms. The study covers four companies located in the U.S., Japan, and China. These companies are HP, Apple, NEC, and Lenovo. The study shows the extent social media plays in communicating messages among different cultures. The research uses four case studies and a content analysis as a methodology. The results show that the four companies used their websites and social media in different ways, which is likely to affect how consumers will assess the importance of the effort. For example, Lenovo developed a strategy to reach more audience on social media. The corporation used the language’s preferences to guide consumers toward specific networks, such as Baidu. In contrast, Apple has a minimal presence on social media. Yet, the company addressed its sustainable practices on its website supported by a high number of visuals. Among other things, the four companies varied in their efforts to communicate sustainability in other languages.
Theme:Media Technologies

Feeding the World: Australia, Live Export and the Interplay of Influences
Dr. Fiona Wade, University of New South Wales Canberra, Canberra, Australia
Overview: When advocates consider how to encourage governments to affect a reactive change in policy, there exists an assumed rhetoric that the media is the mitigating factor required for success, with limited evidence to substantiate the claim. This is in part due to the difficulty previous research studies have found in coming to a definitive answer as to who and what affects policy change. This research paper provides evidence to show how public policy can be manipulated by advocates, using a case study to illustrate pressure points for policy decision makers. The focus of this research paper will be answering the fundamental question: who influences federal government policy relevant to the Australian agricultural sector, in particular, the live export market, and what are the global implications. Using the case study of the live export industry and events that occurred in 2011 post the Four Corners program, ‘A Bloody Business’, this paper deconstructs newsprint, parliamentary debate and the interviews of 18 respondents, to reach seven findings that will serve and provide practical guidance and inform best practice for those aiming to affect policy change within government. While drawing on theoretical concepts including Lippmann's agenda-setting and acknowledging past academic scholarship placing the media at the forefront of the communities’ understanding and participation in the political process, this research paper concludes that a multiple and multilayered approach must be considered for policy change to occur; one that combines politics, media and community advocacy.
Theme:Media Business

Mass Media and Broadcast Media: Spreading Messages of Components of Adult and Non-Formal Education among Populace in Nigeria
Dr. Moshood Ayinde Hassan, Professor, Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Overview: Access to basic education is considered as a fundamental human right and foundation of national development. Nigeria population is over 180 million. The school-age children and the students seeking admission to tertiary institutions in the country are also large relative to the population of Nigeria. More than one million prospective tertiary institution students are unable to get admission to tertiary institutions every year, despite the presence of over two hundred educational institutions meant for that purpose. Thus, adult and non-formal education is the alternative structure that is absorbing large number of students who are unable to get admitted to formal education system. Therefore, the study entitled: Mass Media and Broadcast Media: Spreading Messages of Components of Adult and Non-Formal Education among the populace in Nigeria is embarked upon. The aim of this study is to find out the extent to which mass and broadcast media is used to spread the components of adult and non-formal education among tertiary institution students and the impact on their academic achievements. The study will employ research design of the survey type. Sample will be obtained from the selected Universities, National Open University of Nigeria and Industrial development Centres. Data will be analysed using descriptive statistics to answer research questions; and inferential statistics to test hypotheses. All the results will be decided at point 05 level of confidence. Recommendations will be made based on the findings of the study.
Theme:Media Technologies
Room 4 Newsworthy

From Adultery to Adulting: A Content Analysis of Non-monogamy in the Media
Dr. Michelle Mueller, Academic Year Adjunct Lecturer, Department of Religious Studies, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA, United States
Overview: This paper is an exploration of representations of non-monogamy in media and popular culture from the 1950s until today. My interpretation focuses on the changing tides from representing non-monogamy as activity that is inherently adulterous, unkind, and immature to a mature, self-aware way of designing family that responds to modern realities. Paper focuses on the influences of LGBTQ media professionals (monogamous and non-monogamous) in changing the media narrative and public opinion about non-monogamy. The effect on public opinion is evaluated through a content analysis of references to polyamory and non-monogamy in diverse periodicals; television shows; and films. The paper contributes to our understanding of the constant interplay between media, cultural determinations of sexual morality, and alternative and hegemonic voices.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

News Coverage of the Cannabis Industry in Southern Colorado
Dr. Joanne Gula, Assistant Professor, Mass Communiations, Colorado State University-Pueblo, Pueblo , Colorado, United States
Elizabeth Viall,

Overview: Colorado was the first state to legalize recreational marijuana on November 6, 2012. This study examines editorial content published by the "Pueblo Chieftan," which is located in the largest city in southern Colorado from 2016 when it was elected to approve recreational dispensaries in the city. Prior to this they were only legal in the county. Both the city and county of Pueblo have growing industries as well as legal dispensaries. This content analysis looked at news stories, editorials, and photographs relating to cannabis. Editorial content has been coded for length, topic, placement on page, and pro or con support for this new issue.
Theme:Media Business
Room 5 Troubled Waters

Raising Robotic Natives?: Ethical Aspects of Learning with Robots in Kindergarten
Nils Tolksdorf, PhD student, Department of German Studies and Comparative Literary Studies, Paderborn University, Paderborn, -, Germany
Scarlet Siebert, -, -, Koln University of Applied Sciences, Koln, -, Germany

Overview: Today’s childhood is shaped by media even before entering school. However, the media socialization of children varies with respect to the socio-economic status of their parents (MPFS, 2015; DIVSI, 2015). In current research, the relation between media socialization and the socio-economic status is captured by the “digital divide” or “digital inequality”. While digital divide refers to the differences concerning the access to technologies, digital inequality refers to the varying media usage (Kutscher, 2014). Among children, inequality also exists in terms of educational opportunities, which is fundamentally shaped by children's language skills (Cabell et al., 2011). The development of children’s early language skills is crucial for nearly all subsequent learning and social participation. Therefore, the presented project aims at exploring the possibilities of language and media education through the use of social robots from two disciplines: We will apply social robots to scaffold children’s language learning by systematically consolidating language routines in an experimental setting (psycholinguistic perspective). While this method allows us to investigate the values of social robots for learning, it raises many open questions with respect to what are the legal, ethical and social implications regarding the use of social robots in long-term settings within a kindergarten (media pedagogical perspective). In our presentation, we will address the ethical aspects and social implications going hand in hand with new requirements towards teachers.
Theme:Media Literacies

Documenting Participatory Media Installations
Ralph Kenke, -, -, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, -, Australia
Overview: The non-permanent nature of participatory media installations provides challenges to the artist, researchers, curators and galleries to present an installation concept at an early stage and preserve such work after its uninstallation. The paper will briefly explain how an idea for a participatory media installation that aims to narrow the gap between the engagement in online and physical environments while catering for a documentation process at the same time. I will then continue to elaborate on the different types of participation observed during four exhibitions at Watt Space Gallery, Newcastle; Testing Grounds, Melbourne; Campbelltown Arts Centre, Sydney and National Portrait Gallery, Canberra in Australia and how they correlate to the various layers of documentation which, I call the scattered documentation process. My practice-based research methodology on the notion of telematic performance on shaping digital portraits is revealing the importance of participation to accumulate relevant content to document non-permanent installations. Through my speculative design method, I have designed creative process to spark and maintain a narrative that is the key result of my participatory media installation. I will discuss the challenges and opportunities the media installation ‘Selfie Factory’ (2017) by R. Kenke and E.Trefz created and, present the learning from its exhibitions and documentation approach. My research will reveal insight through observation, surveys, and interviews into how narratives surrounding the artifact have an impact on our Media Culture today.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 6 Diverse Views

Public Diplomacy through Social Media: Analysis of Facebook Pages of Internet Users in Pakistan and America
Amna Waheeda, -, -, Kinnaird College, Lahore, -, Pakistan
Overview: This study analyzes Facebook pages of Internet users in Pakistan and America and their role in decreasing tensions between countries. Content analysis and in-depth interview techniques have been used simultaneously. Two Facebook pages related to Pak-America relations within the time frame of 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011 were chosen for the study. These pages were operated by Internet users of both countries. The categories were analysed included terrorism, culture, education, and women's rights. Those categories were extensively defined and these guidelines were strictly adhered to while conducting the analysis. Each item on the page including picture, walls, shares, and posts were examined for the study. Besides content analysis, the researcher had in-depth interviews with twenty experts of international relations, media, women's rights, and teachers of mass communication.
Theme:Media Technologies

New Light on Dark Money : The Power of Younger Generations’ Symbiotic Bonding for the Resolution of Crucial Human Challenges
Dr. Carol L. Simpson, President, non-profit, NEWPEACE, Malibu, CA, United States
Overview: Given the increasing prevalence of dark money interference in democratic processes, digital media, despite drawbacks, notably aiding mobilization of extremist movements, is still a viable alternative for socio-political change. Social media provides grassroots activists a place to see and hear current events real-time, and a platform on which to speak against social injustice. While acknowledging youth’s vulnerability to digital age filter bubble effects, the dissemination of false or misleading information, and potential unconscious drawing toward exclusionist behavior and human rights violations, this paper draws on case studies where youth demonstrate an aptitude for sharing knowledge of human rights injustices with friends, a powerful force for challenging prejudice and discrimination. Beneath the waves of e-petitions, hashtags, likes and dislikes on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube, these ubiquitous go-to’s are still spaces where people come together, exchange ideas, learn from one another, organize, and take action. The relationship between this and real political-ideological change is speculative, but this paper’s focus points to evidence that in a post-truth, alternative-fact world driven by social media and divisive politics, amidst constant battles between the corrosive effects of dark money anonymous political donor interests and journalistic watchdogs faced with death by myriad cutbacks, the solidarity of younger generations’ symbiotic bonding based on an urgent sense of common mission for the resolution of crucial human challenges, is becoming the driving force for shifting the global current of division and conflict, creating a new reality of a global society in which all may live in peace and dignity.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication
Room 3
Demonetization and Opinions of Indian Newspapers
Indroneil Bir Biswas, Graduate Employee, School of Journalism & Communication, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States
Overview: Media is often abused by the dominant classes viz. government, and corporate houses to manufacture an agenda, which is in sync with their interests. A dominant class’s hegemonic longevity depends on its control over the apparatuses through which it indoctrinates its ideology in a society. In many instances, they control the narrative of a news story using their influence, money, and power. Media owners, editors, and journalists often become focal points of their respective competing class through their proximity to the elites. The present investigation is a case study on the demonetization of high-value currency notes in India during 2016 to examine the relationship between the print media, and political parties through a qualitative analysis of the editorials and op-eds published in two leading English language broadsheet dailies of India. The newspapers have been selected are 'The Pioneer', owned and edited by a former Parliamentarian of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government, and 'Hindustan Times', which has a “reputation” of being pro-Indian National Congress(INC) – the principal opposition party. While 'The Pioneer' was supportive of the government’s point of view and confronted the opposition, majority of the commentaries published in 'Hindustan Times' were dismissive of demonetization, echoing the INC’s point of view. The investigation revealed that the newspapers’ respective opinions about the issue were in sync with the inferred political alignment of their publishers confirming that there has been a close, historic, and symbiotic relationship between the press, and the dominant classes.
Theme:Media Theory

The Political Economy of Film Distribution in the Philippines: A Glimpse of the Metro Manila Film Festival
Mark Lester Chico, -, -, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, -, Philippines
Overview: This paper provides readers a glimpse of how film entries to the Philippines’ arguably most important and biggest film festival, The Metro Manila Film Festival, are distributed. With key informants as primary respondents, this paper reveals how the business of film distribution is controlled by film oligarchs who plot the destiny of films distributed and exhibited in the country. Film distribution in the Philippines is highly politically controlled and profit driven. Film distributors play a crucial role in making sure that their films are preferred not only by exhibitors but more importantly the audience. Film, being the distributors’ commodity, is produced and distributed with profit as the end in mind. The film distribution (as well as production and exhibition) industry is definitely capitalist-driven. These capitalists, in the face of producer-distributors and exhibitors, have an undeniably strong control of the market from when films would be played to whom they would compete with, and much more. They have structured themselves so well through various organizations, such as the National Cinema Association of the Philippines, in order to keep the power within themselves as industry players. They have mastered, or perhaps shaped, a market that craves movies whose content is mainly for entertainment. How can small or starting producers and distributors penetrate the existing market with their “alternative films?” How will they play the game, the rules of which were crafted by those who have stayed in the industry longer? What are the hopes of changing this film landscape?
Theme:Media Business
15:15-15:30 Coffee Break / Pausa para el café
Plenary Room Notes on News

Anyone Can Publish, But Whom Will We Trust?: Factional Strategies for News Production in a Polyfactual Society
Lars Holmgaard Christensen, Affiliate Associate Professor, Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Copenhagen SV, Denmark
Overview: In this paper I claim that we live in a poly-factual society. A poly-factual society is characterized by the production and sharing of factual information in many novel ways other than through traditional news work and editorial gatekeeping. In a poly-factual society, information production and distribution is center-less and not hierarchically organized. News can come from other actors than news companies and how we produce and receive news in society is being re-institutionalized. Corporations, tech-companies, public institutions, organisations, and the public at large all struggle to be trustworthy gatekeepers in a digital media environment. In this struggle to be an authority that can present the truest factual knowledge, we see tribal bickering both between politicians and between news media. We also see a tendency of polarization where people support like-minded people in a fight to define "the facts." Despite this situation, we are neither left with pure lies nor are we out of facts in society, but out of too much factual diverging information have sprung distrust and skepticism in mediated information. Evidently this has lead to a disbelief in political communication but in particular a disbelief in news media as an authoritative voice of truth. Ultimately the power of the news media to oversee political debate and act as society’s watchdog is fading. Hence, the paper clarifies why it is important to abstain from a banal use of "post-truth," "post-factual," and "fake news" and instead embrace notions of poly-factuality and news as factional strategies that can produced from various actors in society.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

On Bended Knees: The Dying Art of Investigative Journalism in Nigeria
Kevin Onyenankeya, Research Fellow, Communication, North-West University, Mafikeng, -, South Africa
Dr. Kehinde Oyesomi, Senior Lecturer/Researcher, Covenant University, Nigeria

Overview: In the past decades, Nigerian newspapers competed intensely for scoops. Reporters jostled to be the first to file that ground-breaking story. But lately, exclusives have become rare occurrence in many Nigeria newspapers. Scores of newspapers now major in recycling handouts and press releases from politicians and corporate entities. Media critics, argue that investigative journalism in Nigeria is in dire straits. For a country with one of the most robust and freest media in Africa, investigative journalism should have unencumbered flourish, but the reverse appears the case. Why is investigative journalism in its tailspin? Is there a transformation in the media culture of riveting journalism? This study examines why investigative journalism has become endangered in Nigeria. It examines the role of sectional politics, political partisanship, bribery and corruption, threat to life, poor incentives as well as ownership structure in the gradual disappearance of investigative journalism from Nigerian newspapers. To achieve these objectives, twelve structured interviews involving editors and reporters in four newspaper organisations in Lagos and Abuja were conducted. The two cities are where media are mostly produced and consumed, where tensions and struggles for control of information, communication, political thoughts and social discourses take place. It is also in these cities that important political, social and economic decisions are taken and where you have high incidence of criminal and mindboggling atrocities occurring daily.
Theme:Media Cultures

Indigenous Language and Radio Advertisement: A Study of Olorunda Community, Ibadan, Nigeria
Kehinde Oyesomi, DR/Senior Lecturer, Mass Communication, Covenant University, Ota, -, Nigeria
Kevin Onyenankeya, Research Fellow, Communication, North-West University, Mafikeng, -, South Africa

Overview: The use of indigenous language by organisations in providing customer relations to their publics has become a thing of necessity. It is therefore important to understand the effectiveness of the use of indigenous language in relating with people who reside in rural communities through radio advertisements. This study therefore attempts to investigate the effectiveness of indigenous language of MTN Radio advertisement in Olorunda community in Ibadan, Oyo state. The study makes use of MTN because it is a non-indigenous company and also the leading telecommunication network provider in Nigeria. The study aims to discover how a non-indigenous organisation interacts with local communities. The study is anchored on the medium theory. Also, four research questions are raised and answered. The survey design was used as the research method, questionnaire and interview guide were used as instruments for data collection. The population of the study were MTN subscribers that reside in Olorunda community which had a sample size of 300. An in-depth interview was conducted with the trade marketing consultant of MTN, Ibadan. Findings revealed that the use of indigenous language for radio advertisements is effective as 84.7% of the respondents remembered MTN radio indigenous advertisement. 80.7% of the respondents also stated that the advertisement aid their understanding of the messages communicated. This study therefore recommends that a timely research should be implemented in organisation’s operations to ensure that they are meeting their customers’ needs with the right messages and through the right medium.
Theme:Media Cultures

Resisting Stereotypes: "Migration Crisis" and the Representation of Migrants of African Descent
Lydia Ouma Radoli, International Researcher, Business, Law and Social Sciences, Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus-Senftenberg
Overview: This paper uses discourse analysis to examine news excerpts from diasporic media and interviews with media experts “on the representation of migrants of African Descent in Europe.” As the influx of migrants from war-torn countries of Syria, Yemen, Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, and Ukraine culminates to “a migration crisis,” migrants outside the category of violence and conflict are labelled in stereotypes that reify “otherness.” Although pockets of Kenyans remain in Europe (Germany and Britain) illegally, many migrate as professionals, expatriates, students, sports talents, etc. They exist within migrant contexts in Europe and are lumped together as “economic migrants.” In Europe, migrants are viewed as threats to the economic well-being and detractors to the political climate. Stereotypical representations of migrants inhibit their integration in host societies. Yet, public discourse ignores their economic contribution at home and abroad. The migration influx of refugees from conflict zones has amplified stereotypes of migrants as “illegals, foreigners, and infringers of social welfare.” However, diasporic media like "Mkenya Ujerumani" (Germany) and "Ukentv" (UK) in this study, (re)produce an alternative narrative of how Kenyans resist and survive the stereotypes. In this paper, I highlight how aspects of representations of migration and development in diasporic media negate a Eurocentric thought.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 1 Democratic Debacles

Deliberation in Dysfunctional Democracies: The Need for Critically Renewing Habermas's Public Sphere Concept
Dr. Michael Hofmann, Florida Atlantic University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States
Overview: Donald Trump skillfully exploits the growing inability of all commercial media to provide American citizens with the investigative reporting and news analyses necessary to conduct the public discourse of an informed electorate in times of military, economic, and political crises. Against the background of the insufficient information used to justify America's entrance into World War I, Walter Lippmann's modern classic "Public Opinion" (1922) offered the first systematic analysis of the structural weaknesses inherent in the role that democratic theory ascribed to the news media regarding the daily gathering, evaluating, and contextualizing of increasingly complex domestic and foreign intelligence. John Dewey's famous rejoinder "The Public and Its Problems" (1927) started a debate in public philosophy whose relevance has grown exponentially due to the tragic consequences of the Vietnam and Iraq Wars. Significantly, the Lippmann/Dewey debate is not included in Juergen Habermas's global academic best seller "The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere" (1962/1989). Only recently did the eminent Habermas scholars Richard J. Bernstein and Craig Calhoun address this omission. This paper presentation will continue where Calhoun's Tanner Lecture "The Problematic Public: Revisiting Dewey, Arendt, and Habermas" (2013) left off.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

The Role of the Technical Communicator in Combating Digital Disinformation
Joshua Taylor, Graduate Teaching Assisatant, English, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States
Overview: Disinformation was rampantly spread over social media during the United States 2016 presidential election. This paper examines how these lies were spread to target specific audiences via use of data analytics in an effort to influence their vote. This intentionally misleading content was sent to specific audiences who were determined to be most susceptible to persuasion based on their social media data. By focusing on the case of "Pizzagate," this work applies technical communication theory to the spread of disinformation in order to argue that technical communicators in digital spaces have a responsibility to respond to this ongoing and pervasive problem.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Political Advertisements, News, and Political Communication in Local Places
Danilo Yanich, Professor, School of Public Policy & Administrtaion, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States
Overview: The election of 2016 was unlike any we have seen. Political advertisement spending remained around the level of the 2012 campaign--$9.8B in total with $4.4B going to local television stations. Most of the local buy was for down ballot races. In the Presidential race, the losing candidate bought 75% of the ads, while the winning candidate reaped the benefit of $5 billion in free media. While much attention is directed toward the Presidential race, the more significant political ad spending occurs in Congressional election spending. Local candidates require political ads to convey their message. Citizens are inundated with political ads on local TV that often proclaim mutually exclusive visions of problems and solutions. The 2016 campaign laid bare the lack of trust that the public has in the media, especially in the breakdown of the “newsroom-community connection.” And, in this era of fake news, citizens are increasingly left to their own devices to sort out fact from fiction. In this mixed methods research project, we coded the content of 1552 local newscasts from September 5 to November 7 in ten TV markets across the U.S.—including battleground states—to examine the relationship between political ads and political stories. The data revealed almost 30,000 stories (4,000 political stories). That was measured against the 263,000 political ads that were aired within the markets. Our questions include, what was the relationship between local television news broadcasts and the political ads? What political stories are covered? What might it mean for political communication in communities?
Theme:Media Business

News Framing as Propaganda in Political Communication: Radio Nigeria News on Cultural Diversity
Mr. Sulaiman Osho, Scholar and Researcher, Communication, Marketing and Media, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
Overview: The concept of framing of news conveys the ideological nature of news and the use of media as propaganda machinery in political communication. Thus, radio news is being used to frame government agendas in the cultural diversity of Nigeria to meet certain agendas. This paper examines the critical discourse analysis of Radio Nigeria's national news on cultural diversity in Nigeria, to identify the missing links in the unending ethnic, religious, and cultural conflicts in the Africa’s most populous country. It uses the “manufacturing consent” theory of Herman and Chomsky (1988) to observe the political economy nature of news framing. The study applies the five propaganda devices of the theory on Radio Nigeria news to measure how the news framing affects the nature of the ethnic conflicts. The paper concludes that the framing of the radio news has impact on the suspicions among the ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 2 New Literacies

An Empirical Study on Media Literacy of Network Radio Drama Production Group in China
Yiqun Geng, Professor, Institute of Communication Studies, Communication University of China, Beijing, -, China
Overview: With the development of digital technology and social media, young people are organizing increasing numbers of small groups with distinctive characteristics according to their preferences. Groups such as Funsub group, ACG group, electronic game group, homemade On-line drama group, and other network groups have gradually become an inseparable part of the culture in the Network environment, constituting a unique UGC network culture phenomenon. As a network minority group, the Chinese network radio drama production group warrants investigation. Considering the theory and practice of online (virtual/network) community, this paper takes the online radio drama production group as the research target by adopting the research methods of field observation, survey, and in-depth interviews to sketch the organizational structure of the group and present the network radio drama production process. Based on Henry Jenkins' participatory cultural theory, the authors examined the media literacy level and competence traits of the group members from six aspects: collective collaboration capacity, performance simulation capacity, media production capacity, evaluation capacity, disseminating and sharing capacity, and self-cognition capacity. The study reveals that the network radio drama production group is thriving and indicating a unique subcultural phenomenon, though the group may encounter potential network risks and the problem of self-legitimacy in the process of development. Some strategies are proposed from levels of the group members, families and schools, and the larger society.
Theme:Media Literacies

Teaching Around Trump : Pedagogical and Rhetorical Acrobatics in the Writing and Research Classroom
Michael Meinhardt, Senior Lecturer, Enlgish/Writing Program, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, -, United States
Overview: The intersection of the contemporary states of fact, rhetoric, research, and civil discourse has undergone such a dramatic and overwhelming shift away from long-standing methods and methodologies that the writing and research classroom is at risk of sacrificing the mission of pedagogy in the student mindset and the political and economic spectrum of administration. The dangers of this precipice, fomented mostly through Donald Trump's political ascendency and the actions used to do so as well as further his particular array of governance goals, is the tacit acceptance of his authority and authoritative style by students in a writing arena that requires them to transform, however challenging this may be so as to establish a strong foundation for academic and professional development. This study examines a framework by which the writing classroom community may be established from the start so as to circumvent dogmatism, considers rhetorical strategies to confront zealotry through discursive collaboration, and grounds the writing and research classroom in both holistic and concrete goals for the skills to be acquired and the value those skills hold in the greater world.
Theme:Media Literacies

Prison Radios as Tools of Communication with the Inner and Outer World
Gergely Gosztonyi, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Eötvös Loránd University, ELTE, Budapest, -, Hungary
Overview: There are two basic goals for the law enforcement: all those who are judged by the independent judiciary to be separated from society and on the other hand to do everything to ensure that the prisoners have the chance to reintegrate into the community. The meaningful activity can help the convicts not go onto the so-called 'prison socialization' path or reduce the inaction associated with the closed space and the strict agenda. In the UK the Prison Radio Association was set up in 2006, and after one year of its work, the world's first prison radio started its broadcasting in the HM Brixton Prison in 2007. Since 2013 the PRA broadcasted in more than one hundred UK and Wales. Since that time, similar initiatives have started in Scotland, Sweden, Israel, Australia, Trinidad and Tobago. And in 2014, the first prison radio in Central-Eastern-Europe started its broadcasting in Hungary at the Vác Prison. All those experiences show that even those underrepresented groups like prisoners could benefit a lot from some aspects of freedom of expression. The target audience is where the creators of the programs are: behind the grid. PRA is an example of everything that is commonly referred to as the third leg of the three-stage media system, the alternative or community media. It is built on the content created by prisoners and broadcast to the prisoners. By the community, to the community. With this new tool, prisoners have begun to engage in entertainment, learning and development.
Theme:Media Literacies

Space in Contemporary Cinema: Three Billboards Outside of Ebbing Missouri, Manchester by the Sea, and The Shape of Water
Abu Haque, Tutorial Leader, Sociology, York University, Toronto, -, Canada
Overview: The paper explores the cinematic spaces in contemporary American film in relation to the triad of spatial practices, representations of space, and representational spaces produced through a variety of exclusions. These exclusions reproduce the dominant discourse. Visual analysis of three contemporary films explored how spaces conceived in cinema (spaces produced through the process of filmmaking) deviate from the social practices of divergent groups within these spaces. The production of these cinematic spaces does not correspond with the lived experience of the margin, as they reinforce racial and gender biases to reproduce the dominant ideologies. The production of the ‘New South’ within these cinematic spaces is reminiscent of the idyllic antebellum South. The representational spaces of these films also conceal the hegemonic power relations between the dominant form of representation and the margin. These spaces recreate the dominant discourse, which are seldom challenged by alternative representations. The production of these representations brings in the spaces of heterotopias such as bars, washrooms, city streets and alleys, graveyards and the fantasmatic, all of which reify the dominant discourse through cinematic narratives.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 3 Professional Concerns

Media Literacy Education: Taking a Fresh Look in the Twenty-first Century Democratic Society
Dr. Sam Nkana, Adjunct Professor, Journalism & Communication, Southern Adventist University, Collegedale, Tennessee, United States
Overview: The definition of media literacy has evolved over the years, but continues to purvey the notion of the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media in a variety of forms. Becoming media literate individuals no longer focuses heavily on primary and secondary school students, but has now expanded to include college students, parents, teachers, and professionals in all fields of human endeavors. The National Association For Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) created core principles to further emphasize the importance of media literacy education, emphasizing the following: 1. Media Literacy Education requires active inquiry and critical thinking about the messages we receive and create. 2. Media Literacy Education expands the concept of literacy to include all forms of media (i.e., reading and writing). 3. Media Literacy Education develops informed, reflective and engaged participants essential for a democratic society. Len Masterman, pioneering media educator in England and author of the seminal text, Teaching the Media, affirms NAMLE by stating, “media education is essentially active and participatory.” With this understanding, I explore how United States schools could place more emphasis on media education, more so now that social media has become a mainstay in our society, and fake news is carving a foothold in the news media. Fake news as we’ve come to understand it, is any information that is deliberately meant to be wholly or largely false. These problems, which I believe will get worse, should forge the need for educators to rethink media literacy with greater urgency.
Theme:Media Literacies

Re-defining the Journalistic Professionalism in China Mainland: A Study on China News Award Recommendation Letters from 2003 to 2017
Dr. Songlei Li, -, -, Chongqing University, Chongqing, Chongqing, China
Overview: Theoretically, news award symbolizes the establishment of journalistic professional standards by acknowledging and promoting exemplary practices, which also serve as an important indicator of the level of professionalization. In mainland China, the most renowned journalism prize is China News Award, which was approved by the Central Propaganda Department in 1991 and sponsored by China Journalists Association annually. The finalist for China News Award, however, is nominated and recommended only by the news academia and news industries. These recommendations in application forms including (1) introduction of news work, (2) process of news gathering and presenting, (3) social value and (4) why we like it, signify the status of China’s journalistic professionalization in the context of Chinese political and economic system. Previous correlational studies often focused on Newspaper Commentary on Chinese journalists’ Day, obituaries and departure reports of traditional media reporters, analyzing the nostalgia for the golden age, especially the lost news ideal. This study, examines how mainland China’s news academia and industries use recommendations to strive for and exemplify journalistic standards and ideals to negotiate a new definition of journalism between professionalism and mouthpiece press theory. Specifically, based on the publicity and accessibility of research data, this study analyzes recommendation letters for China News Award from 2003 to 2017 with a focus on four aspects of journalistic professionalization: (1) image of the ideal journalist, especially the characteristics of the ideal journalist; (2) journalists’ definitions of occupational virtues an ideals; (3) public responsibility and (4) boundary drawing between “good” and “bad” journalism.
Theme:Media Cultures

Media Self-regulation in Chile: Media Ethics Council Case
Francisca Greene, Professor, Communication Faculty, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile
Overview: In recent years Chile has emerged in a number of partnerships promoting journalistic self-regulation. Print and visual media have been organized to create ethics boards that help to do their job well. At the same time, various media have created their program guidelines or style manuals that have been made public. This research aims to explore the reasons that led to the creation of the principal and first self-regulatory body in Chile: the Consejo de Ética de los Medios, when and why it was inspired and the idea that the promoters had when they created it.
Theme:Media Theory

Hits and Misses: Applying Media Production Frameworks to Social Media Forms
Dr. Kristine Mirrer, -, -, Kean University, Union, NJ, United States
Overview: Dissection of mass media formats has been used as a means to interpret and understand individual media works. Application of these observations has provided frameworks for the creation of new works, as well. This paper explores this application of accepted media standards to social media works. Consideration is given to multi-platform production and its relationship to social media delivery and questions whether existing media production standards are applicable to multiple media streams and diverse media audiences.
Theme:Media Technologies
Room 5 Views and Reviews

Orientalist Stylometry: A Statistical Approach to the Analysis of Orientalist Cinema
Dr. Philippe Mather, -, -, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
Overview: This study begins by countering the standard critique that Edward Said’s Orientalism (1978) suffers from the same essentialist binarism that he identified in Orientalist discourse. I argue instead that Said’s work is more nuanced than is often implied, while remaining a fairly clear paradigm that allows for a multi-dimensional study of filmic texts, including: 1) Locating patterns within representations of the East; 2) Evaluating degrees of conformance to Orientalist stereotypes; 3) Charting the evolution of orientalist discourse in film, noting both enduring themes as well as new variations such as techno-orientalism. As a case study, I will focus on Euro-American representations of the island-city-state of Singapore, including textual analyses of a sample of narrative fiction films produced between World War II and the present. I intend to use statistical analyses of film style, inspired by the work of Barry Salt and Jeremy Butler. By identifying stylistic and image content parameters such as shot length, shot size, point-of-view editing, the presence/absence of Asian versus Caucasian characters and languages spoken, and correlating this data to Said’s dogmas of orientalism, I hope to uncover information that had previously gone unnoticed, and may lead to new insights regarding orientalist discourse in the cinema.
Theme:Media Technologies

Mediating “Good Death” in End-of-life Documentaries
Outi Hakola, Researcher, Department of Cultures, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Overview: There has been something of a proliferation of end-of-life documentaries in recent years, including films, television documentaries, special episodes, and documentary series. The growing interest in mediated images of death and dying can be related to the aging population, death awareness movements, and increased demand for hospice care in the Western world. Directors have also recognized wanting to contribute to public discussions on death by giving visibility to dying people. This paper explores documentaries that deal with end-of-life issues, including questions of right to die (assisted suicide), palliative care, and hospice practices with the view that medical care is not enough on its own but that end-of-life care should also look after the psychological, spiritual, and emotional needs of the dying and their families. These documentaries emphasize the debate around “good death,” a common phrase that defies any clear definition. Most often it is used to refer to meaningful and dignified death, where personal choice and autonomy take precedence over medical (or even legal) practices. Most importantly, “good death” is about culturally defined expectations and processes which come into play in the documentaries as well. Each end-of-life documentary redefines the limits and practices of good death, thus highlighting the cultural and social values related to death. In this way, by mediating certain discourses and representations these documentaries participate in public discussions over death and dying. In this paper, by using the practical example of end-of-life documentaries and concept of “good death,” I will take further the discussion about relationship between mediation theories and everyday life. With the help of content analysis, I analyze how these films have selected their approaches to dying, how their narrative elements are organized, what focus the films have, and most importantly, how these choices construct, normalize, and challenge cultural understandings of “good death” through mediated discourses and politics of representation.
Theme:Media Theory

Downton Abbey: Powerful Women, Powerless Lives
Dr. Shweta Kushal, Assistant Professor, Communications, Indian Institute of Management Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Overview: In current times, there has been a surge of English series that are classified as period/historical dramas. Set in a particular time-frame, they showcase the mannerisms and cultural practices of the time that they portray. One such media offering to capture the imagination of the English-speaking/consuming audiences is Downton Abbey. Set in the early 20th Century, primed at the time of the fall of old aristocratic lifestyles and values, this series follows the family of the Earl of Downton to demonstrate the changes in aristocracy. Replete with scandals and glamour, it stands out with its remarkable portrayal of strong-willed female characters that, more often than not, save the day and are the guiding force of the narrative. From the Dowager Countess to the youngest entrant on the scene, Rose, they are all women who challenge the rules of the game that they are set to play, at least on the face of it. This paper argues, however, that this defiance is only perfunctory and that the narrative, in the end, promotes docility, honesty, patience, and steadfastness – demonstrated by the illustrious prize of finding a desired husband from the Peerage as the series finale. It argues that through its many ups and downs, in which the women of Downton Abbey defy the established tenets of society, the series creates a lasting image of rewarding feminine values propagating the construction of the ideal woman in its myriad audience, while paying lip service to the suffragette movement, the game-changer of the time.
Theme:Media Cultures

Explicating Binge-Watching as an Active Behavior of Korean Audiences: Behavior Model Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior
Miss Kumhee Jung, Graduate student , Interdisciplinary Program of EcoCreative, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Seodaemun-gu, South Korea
Sun Young Choi, Professor, Ewha Womans University
Yun Jung Choi, Professor, Ewha Womans University

Overview: The growth of over the top (OTT) services, including Netflix, led to ‘binge-watching’ as a global phenomenon. Binge-watching, which is defined as a viewing behavior in which two or more identical programs are continuously consumed, is more free and active behavior that the audience can choose the viewing time, the amount of viewing, and playing manipulation. In this study, binge-watching is assumed to be based on the audience's activity. We explore it by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We surveyed Korean users of OTT services and investigated whether TPB’s variables 'attitude', 'perceived behavioral control' and ‘subjective norms’ could affect on frequency, premeditation, and intensity of binge-watching. As an analysis, 'attitude' and 'perceived behavioral control' had a statistically significant positive effect on the frequency of binge-watching and ‘perceived behavioral control’ and ‘subjective norms’ both had a positive effect on premeditation of binge-watching. On the other hand, the intensity of binge-watching showed a different pattern. The 'attitude' and 'perceived behavioral control' had a statistically significant positive effect on the intensity of binge-watching, but ‘subjective norms’ had a negative effect on it. In addition, this study also modeled and verified the static effects of binge-watching on user gratification and persistent intention to use.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 6 Contemporary Considerations

Implementing a University Center for Innovation in Technology and Digital Media: Strategies to Consider, Pitfalls to Avoid
Chad Clark, -, -, Indiana State University, Terra Haute, Indiana, United States
Overview: This qualitative case study explores strategies for implementing a technology and digital media center on a traditional Midwestern university campus. The researcher was part of a team that attempted to create a permanent collaboration between colleges of arts and sciences and technology. The collaboration effort was designed to unite digital-based extracurricular opportunities and classroom learning in order to enhance the reputation of the university by adding to the institution mandate to educate through hands-on experiences. Addressing the issue that there was no link between digital media and communication curriculum and various technology groups on campus, the creators of the center desired to make technology-focused students better professional communicators and to make communication-focused students more adept at using digital technology. As a digital literacy effort the center focused on media technology use via the development of digital media and technology policy which would provide campus-wide guidelines for the use of digital media as well as the creation of digital media products. These products and policies were envisioned to be jointly created by faculty and staff, students, and citizens from the community. The center plan called for phased implementation commencing with the development of a digital workplace styled after makerspaces and moving next to the development of curriculum to support students who did not fall into traditional majors. Finally the center was to have affiliated faculty to ensure longevity. Via case study the researcher outlines the implementation process whereby the center was supported on almost every level yet remains unratified.
Theme:Media Business

Five Months in Nantes: An Interactive Documentary Experience for Language Teaching and Learning
Dr. Isabel Rivero Vilá, Assistant Professor of Modern Languages, Modern Language Department, Carthage College, Kenosha, Wisconsin, United States
Overview: Interactive documentaries (idocs) are projects that document the "real" and combine digital interactive technology (images, text, audio, animation, graphic design, etc.), web technologies, and documentary practice. An interactive documentary allows the audience members, in this case, our foreign language learners, to make the work unfold through their interactions, moving the story forward and giving it meaning by exploring the components that interest them most. I believe interactive documentary films offer endless possibilities in language teaching and are an ideal medium for integrating the target culture and for promoting engaging discussions. Thus, language learning is based on real cultural contexts so that the students become more engaged with the world. In order to integrate this world into my class, I became a documentary filmmaker myself. My goal was to offer an opportunity to discover everyday life in Nantes as I experienced it during my stay in France. The result was my idoc : « 5 months in Nantes », where the viewers choose the side of the city they would like to explore in their stay in Nantes (touristy, green, historic, university, political, etc.) in order to become familiar with different French-speaking contexts and make connections with their own experiences. Furthermore, I propose a series of activities, that I have done with my students, to prepare them for the filmmaking process and allow practice of the target language with the idoc. Finally, participants will have the necessary tools and resources to carry out this type of project with their students.
Theme:Media Cultures

Managing Workplace Relations at a Distance
Derek Wallace, Senior Lecturer, Linguistics, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
Overview: This paper considers how it might be possible to enhance the relational quality of communication in online work contexts. My starting point is to agree that relational possibilities are more restrictive and frequently more contrived in computer mediated communication (CMC) compared with face-to-face situations, but to disagree that this means CMC is an impoverished mode of communication. What CMC lacks in relational immediacy can be compensated for, and this compensatory behaviour can become second nature once the need for it is recognised and measures are practiced. The paper draws on sociolinguistic research (particularly that of politeness theory and the "rapport management" framework of Helen Spencer-Oatey) to explore the comparative potentials of a range of online communication tools and develop a framework for their complementary deployment. The discussion is based in the experiences of an international network of researchers established with the purpose of exploring the affordances of a range of tools in the course of building their online association.
Theme:Media Cultures
Room 4
What “Independent” News Media Tells Us About The French News Media Field
Sedel Julie, Assitant professor, Information and communication, Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, -, France
Overview: While emblematic newspapers are falling into industrial, bankers and businessmen’ hands, aside from State ownership, “independency” is being held as a unifying principle by a plurality of medias partly created against the field of mainstream media. With few employees and low budgets, some of these institutions defend a high conception of journalism by placing independency toward economic and political powers as central values. Through their capitalistic organization, this article proposes to open the “black box” of independency and to analyze its social uses in the French field of news. What role does these news media play in the journalistic field? How do they build their singularity and legitimacy? What do they reveal about French New media logic of sustainability?
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Alt-Media - The Shifting Tide of Political Communication

Patterns of Communist Regime Propaganda in Present-time Polish Public Television
Dr. Magdalena Mateja, Assistant professor, Faculty of Political Science and International Studies , Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Non-US/Non-Canadian, Poland
Overview: Did Poles get to understand the liberal democracy and ways of communicating within one? The Polish standards of freedom of speech and the government's attempts to change the media system into authoritarian as well as the political system have been lately discussed on the forum of EU and USA. At the same time, the future of Polish democracy and political communication have been under discussion in the country. This paper explores the features and mechanisms of communist propaganda in present-time Polish public television. The following are carried out for the paper: 1. An analysis of the media system in Poland regarding findings in its structure in terms of aspects of the post-communist organisation of mass media. 2. An examination the structure of "Wiadomości" as a production format and also an information genre. 3. Content analysis with the intention of finding elements of propaganda.
Theme:Media Cultures
17:10-17:30 Conference Closing and Award Ceremony / Clausura del Congreso y Entrega de Premios