Chrononutrition, Regular Eating Patterns, and Body Composition

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Abstract

An extensive literature review was performed to provide a background for appreciating the potential relationship between eating pattern regularity and measures of body composition within the context of chrononutrition. Existing evidence on contemporary eating behaviors supports the high prevalence of irregular and individualized eating patterns that vary dramatically in terms of daily frequency, timing, and energy content. Data from temporal dietary analyses within chrononutrition studies suggest that inconsistencies in nutrient intake and timing disrupt circadian-associated human biological rhythms with consequences for metabolic health and the regulation of body weight. Multiple physical, environmental, and possibly genetic factors direct individual eating patterns, highlighting the growing body of research and interest in personalized therapies among nutrition and healthcare professionals. Identifying qualitative and quantitative measures to characterize and classify individual eating pattern types may support efforts to develop and deliver effective personal dietary recommendations. This review provides substantiation for further exploration and novel approaches in support of optimal health and body weight.