Learners’ Readiness for Autonomy and Online Learning

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Abstract

It has been widely acknowledged that autonomy significantly impacts English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ learning outcomes in many ways, but relatively few studies have examined learners’ readiness for autonomy and online learning in a single inquiry. This study attempts to address three vital issues, namely, the relationship between learner readiness for autonomy and online learning from the perspectives of EFL teachers using Learners’ Readiness for Autonomy (LRA) and Learners’ Readiness for Online Learning (LROL) questionnaires, as well as their practices and challenges in implementing autonomy during online learning practices. One hundred and fifty-seven Indonesian EFL teachers from East Java Province in Indonesia were surveyed to view their learners’ readiness for autonomy and online learning and draw on their practices and challenges in implementing autonomy and online learning. Mixed methods combining a quantitative survey approach using a structural equation modeling (SEM) and a qualitative approach applying thematic analysis from interviews were employed. The results revealed a high correlation between learners’ readiness for autonomy and online learning. Further, the EFL teachers rated their learners’ autonomy level as developing level of autonomy and online learning. The specific dimension of these points is also elaborated in this article. The learners were also perceived to be psychologically ready for autonomy and online learning but, technically and behaviorally, were not. Meanwhile, the opinions of the EFL teachers regarding autonomy and online learning practices and challenges showed that only a few reported successful practices but that most of them needed to be more successful and aware of autonomy practices.