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Just Published - Education 2.0: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Test

Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis

We are on the cusp of a series of socio-technical revolutions. On one count, after the industrial revolutions of steam, electricity, and digitization, the next is Industry 4.0, a revolution in which artificial intelligence will be central (Schwab & Klaus, 2017). On another count, focusing now on internet communications,after the read-only web, then the social web, this is Web 3.0, or what web founder Tim Berners-Lee calls the semantic web.1 In this proposal web data is structured around ontologies and tagged and structured in such a way that supplementary meaning is added to natural language, images and other media (Cope, Kalantzis & Magee. 2011).

Schools have barely been touched by these changes. Even though we now find computers in classrooms, and learners accessing their knowledge and doing their work on digital devices, the social relationships of learning have remained much the same. In this paper, we’re going to look at one critically important aspect of education, the test. We are going to focus on this particularly because the test the primary measure of educational outcomes, learner knowledge and progress, and teacher, school and system effectiveness. Tests also influence curriculum, the tail wagging the proverbial dog.

Students are now doing tests online—but as knowledge artifacts they have changed little...

How might things be different? How might artificial intelligence be part of the change? What might be the shape of Education 2.0?


Cope, Bill and Mary Kalantzis. 2019. "Education 2.0: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Test." Beijing International Review of Education 1:528-43.

  • Heather Blevins
  • William Cope