Citation Guide

Citation Quick Guide


All journal article article citations and references must follow the rules of the Chicago Manual of Style. Instructions and examples for foreign titles are listed here on this page. For additional instructions and examples, please download our Citation Help Guide.


English translations for any foreign titles should be included in brackets following the titles in the original language.

Book Example:

Pirumova, Nataliia. 1977. Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka [The Zemstvo Liberal Movement: Its Social Roots and Evolution to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka.”

Journal Example:

Pirumova, Nataliia. 1977. “Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka” [The Zemstvo Liberal Movement: Its Social Roots and Evolution to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century]. Zhurnal sotsial'nykh korney i evolyutsii [Journal of Social Roots and Evolution] 3 (3): 1–24.

When formatting your citations, please remember to avoid these common mistakes:

  • In-text citations should only include a page number when citing a direct quote.
    • If you are not citing a direct quote, please do not include a page number.
  • When using a direct quote, the exact words must be attributed to the source.
    • Please use "double quotation" marks to indicate a direct quote.
    • Direct quotes should contain a page number with the citation.
    • Example: Smith said, "direct quotes contain a page number" (Smith 2016, 34).
  • The reference list should only list citations which appear in-text.
    • If a source is not cited in-text, it should not appear in the reference list.
  • Please refrain from using any of the "citations and bibliography" tools or features in Microsoft Word.
    • These are not editor-friendly software tools and they cause numerous problems during typesetting.
    • Citations and references should be entered as regular text without the aid of any special features or tools.


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