Explore and document a case study of an e-learning innovation—something in which you have been involved, or which you have observed in a place where you have studied or worked, or an interesting intervention somewhere else that you would like to study in more detail. A practice may be a piece of software or hardware; a teaching and learning activity that uses technology; or a case study of a class, a school or person using technologies in learning in an innovative way. Use the 'seven affordances' framework to analyze the dynamics of the e-learning ecology that you are investigating.
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has always been an important factor to impact education. The ultimate goal when using ICT is to enhance teaching and learning through student-centered pedagogy. Many research studies have shown that ICT aided pedagogy should be constructivist, emphasizing collaborative and interactive learning experience (Bishop & Verleger, 2013). In this direction, the flipped classroom approach (Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000), in which in-person classroom lectures are flipped with other learning activities at home, provides one of the most promising solution yet relatively easy to implement as a way to realize the student-centered pedagogy. From the perspective of teacher professional development, the flipped learning approach helps transform the pedagogical beliefs of the pre-service and in-service teachers to open up a creative space for innovative pedagogical development beyond the borders of the traditional system, thus echoing with the idea of a transformative learning (Elias, 1997) to develop a community of practice (Wenger, 1998) for these teachers.
Throughout the past centuries, conventional classroom teaching has been adopted in K-16 education. Especially in Hong Kong with Chinese learning cultures, students generally tend to be very shy in classroom because they are often told to keep quiet when teachers gives instructions. Chan and Chan (1999) has surveyed some teachers in Hong Kong before, and they found that the most frequently mentioned uncreative attributes were “conventional,” “timid,” “lack of confidence,” and “conforming.” With the traditional classroom teaching, teachers seem to find insufficient time to allow students to develop their creativity because their face-to-face time is dedicated to “knowledge consumption” instead of “knowledge construction”. There is certain knowledge to be taught in order to help students learn before they can handle homework problems at home. However, students who cannot complete those homework assignments usually find no one to help except their peers, who may have a similar difficulty in completing the assignment. When students go back to class on the other days, teachers will again need to cover new topics and leave very minimal time for answering questions for students. The recurring effect will continue unless students can keep up the pace of the teachers in class. Otherwise, it is imperative to design and introduce a new learning method for students to learn more effectively. Thus, flipped learning approach (Tucker, 2012) has been adopted in the recent research initiative for further investigation and evaluation, which aims to find out how students perceive the effectiveness of this approach particularly in our Hong Kong Chinese learners’ culture.
The key difference between traditional approach and the flipped classroom approach is summarized in the following table:
|Traditional teaching||Flipped classroom teaching|
|At home||Students are required to complete the homeworks at home. For junior students, this is usually done under the parents’ supervision.||Students watch the video lectures at home before coming to class. Junior students may be accompanied by parents while watching the video lectures.|
|In class||Students listen to lectures and take part in minimal in-class activities as time is limited.||Students have ample of time for collaborative and interactive in-class activities, fostering their learning and building up ownership and confidence. These activities serve as their formative assessment.|
In the math courses I teach in college, students usually meet for face-to-face instructions once a week for three hours each. While considering mathematics as one of the subjects which require time to think and then practice, it is very common that some of the class time have already been dedicated for tutorial type of learning. In other words, math classes are very often not a pure lecture even in conventional classroom teaching, where teachers usually try to give some examples on math problems and then allow students to solve at least one problem during class time. But the problem is still the limited time allowed for face-to-face interaction if a portion of time is allocated for directed teaching method. McLaren (2013) wrote about his flipped classroom experience for a math course,
“Good math teachers have always been aware that to learn math, you have to do it, not just watch it. So the biggest change that flipped represented for me, initially, was not so much about what I did, but when I did it.” (p. 99).
In fact, using flipped learning model in teaching mathematics has been studied recently by many educators (Dove, 2014; Kim et al., 2014; Long, 2014; Strayer, 2014). Based on the idea of flipped learning, it is sensible for math teachers to teach a basic math concept with an example in a video clip similar to Khan Academy. Students are instructed to watch a related video at home as a part of the homework assignments. Instead of working on problem set at home after class, students will be provided the class time to work on these problems either individually or collaboratively (Herreid & Schiller, 2013). That way teachers and peers can provide instant assistances when they cannot solve the problems on their own. In addition, teachers can organize more different types of learning activities during the class to allow students to be more collaborative and interactive. Classroom teaching and learning will no longer be alone, and every entity including the resources from the Internet is available to help create a better learning experience. Even more, video can be available on mobile devices for students to watch so that they can prepare for the next class any time at anywhere.
On the other hands, a way to assess their participation outside of classroom will be needed if we ought to extend their learning experience to online and even mobile platforms. The learning analytics should be adopted and extended to mobile platforms in order to analyze the learning process of students outside of classroom. In brief, learning analytics refer to the collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners in their learning context (West, 2012). The goal of conducting learning analytics is to provide opportunities for academic or teaching staff to facilitate and guide students or learners in the learning process with the ultimate goal of optimizing their learning outcome. With the help of technology, learning analytics have been extended to cover the learning on mobile platforms.
In this work, I will first introduce the flipped learning initiative in this summer semester, and how learning analytics could help study how students learn both on stationary computers and mobile devices. Then the practice will be analyzed by the seven affordances on all the elements in this research initiative. My personal critical reflection will be included in the next section, and a recommendation of how flipped classroom should be run for the next semester in the same course will be concluded at the end.
Flipping college math classes has been investigated at some other institutes (Ogden, 2014; Talbert, 2014). In Hong Kong, there have been a few pilot investigations in the recent years to show that local schools have recently begun some experiments on implementing this learning model (Yeung, 2014). While not many formal research reports could be found related to flipped classroom experience, one recent study was found to investigate how to teach information literacy with flipped classroom in a local secondary school (Kong, 2014). To understand the effectiveness of flipped learning and the impact in Hong Kong, I have redesigned the math course MTH2101 Mathematics Exploration with Technology to adopt flipped learning model in the classroom for the summer semester (from June to July for six weeks while 12 weeks in regular semester). The course aims to provide an opportunity for students, who are pre-service primary school teachers, to investigate the implication of using technology for teaching and learning in the mathematics curriculum. The learning outcomes of the courses are to prepare students to be able to:
The nature of the course provides an excellent platform to begin with the study of flipped classroom since the contents are expected to be highly related to technology in mathematics education. The design of the course itself permits more elements of technology usage in the classroom, and thus I have decided to consider this summer course for experimental class while allowing students to pursue for university credits. Here are the demographic statistic of the background of the students in Table 2:
|Number of Students|
|Math Education Major||9|
The structure of the course has been designed to provide two lessons of theory and concepts of ICT in mathematics education, two lessons on Excel Macro with VBA (Visual Basics Application), five lessons on GeoGebra, and one lesson on problem solving techniques with technology. Last year, the course was taught in a way of mixed approach with lectures and tutorials within three hours in a lesson. Then, students were asked to complete some exercises at home, similar to other courses. Materials were provided and distributed to them through Moodle system.
Preparation for Flipped Learning
To facilitate the new learning with flipped approach, the platform should provide a user-friendly feature of posting embedded video links for learners to access the video lectures or tutorials. In this case, I have selected a free cloud service called Schoology (https://www.schoology.com/home.php), a learning management system (LMS) that offers various suitable features for flipped classroom, such as document and multimedia sharing, discussion forum, announcements and updates, assignment and assessment, polling, mobile apps version, and analytic tools. A certain level of security is available to manage the users who could access to the course materials, and prevent outsiders to interfere the learning process. For the video storage, I have chosen Google's YouTube as a platform to store and distribute the video recording because it offers more features targeting to video sharing, such as high storage volume, better video playback quality, completely available on various mobile operating system platforms, and targeted video learning analytics.
Implementation and Learning Processes
Prior to each lesson, I had prepared a set of video clips to be available through Schoology, and each clip was about 5 to 8 minutes long except one with 15 minutes on theory and principles. For each major theme, I recorded a few minutes with me in the video mainly with Apple QuickTime Player to introduce the new topic to students and prepare them for further learning. For other sub-topics under the same theme, I separated into two types of video recording method, one for lecture and another for tutorial. The lecture video was designed to walk students through the conceptual ideas, while the audio narration was recorded to accompany the powerpoint slides. Usually, this type of video is to replace those times for didactic lectures since it does not involve any interaction with students. On the other hand, the tutorial video was mainly to illustrate some features in Excel and GeoGebra through screen casting. This was done by using various recording software applications such as Apple Quick Time Player to capture the movement on screens while recording my narration. In this type of video, I attempted to walk through steps with students, and they could follow my steps at home to create some basic math tools using Excel and GeoGebra. The purpose is to prepare them to become skillful with using these different functions to create more advanced applications during the class time. Although reference books and manuals were provided, they were encouraged to follow my demonstration in the videos before attending to my lesson.
In the flipped learning model, the key feature is to enhance the quality of interaction during the face-to-face lesson. Usually, I allocated the first one hour of the lesson to demonstrate an advanced tool I made to prepare the students for working on in-class individual or collaborative lab assignment. For example, Figure 1 shows an explorative tool made in GeoGebra, which is available in GeoGebratube (Wong, 2014). To create this tool, students were required to have prior knowledge (i.e. sliders and sequence) learned from the lesson videos. On that particular lesson, I walked through most of the essential steps and let students try to complete the rest by following the example on the web.
Once they finished creating the demo tool, they would be given a set of tasks to complete during the lesson. Some tasks contained step-by-step procedures to follow, while some were only the completed version available in Schoology or GeoGebratube. They were encouraged to work together with other peers during the class time, and I would also walk around and provide individual instructions to each student. Sometimes I explicitly assigned them a challenging problem to solve within a small group in class. It allowed them to discuss and collaborate to accomplish the task together, and they would cheer up together when they finally accomplished the goal of challenge. At the end, I usually invited the students to come and share their product made to the whole class.
Since native mobile version of Schoology is available for installation, I created five different online discussion topics. I encouraged students to access the discussion forum through their mobile phones since half of the class were part-time students. They would need to take at least one hour to travel to the campus before the lesson. Using mobile devices to engage them in the flipped classroom would be an appropriate solution to their learning process outside of classroom, given that they were highly motivated to learn. Although the questionnaire results are not available at this moment, it is intuitively true based on my personal mobile learning experience that mobile technology extends the learning process anywhere at any time. This advantage becomes more obvious for learners living in metropolitan area where people always need to take public transports between locations. During that time, people can find many tasks to do ranging from reading books to playing video games. For authentic learners, they would rather choose to continue to learn as much as possible to maximize their learning outcomes. Mobile technology would help fulfill the goals of this type of learners.
Mobile Learning Analytics
In traditional environments teachers were not able to observe the learning process until students returned their completed homework assignments. From that point, it would be too late to know that student were not learning effectively in the past lessons. To make up the inadequacy, teachers would need to interfere with planned teaching agenda in the current period, or find another time to review the previous materials with students. Thus, we need the help of learning analytics to bring insight of learning process about each learner.
As I have mentioned, learning analytics refer to the collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners in their learning context. The goal of conducting learning analytics is to provide opportunities for teachers to facilitate and guide students in the learning process with the ultimate goal of optimizing their learning outcomes. To have a better understanding of students learning process in flipped model, it is important to collect data about the students’ behaviors in interacting with others through e-learning platforms outside of classroom, i.e. Schoology and YouTube. In conventional classrooms, teachers can always observe whether learners are attentive and concentrated in the lectures. Since the flipped learning model shifts a part of the essential learning to video watching and other online activities, it is imperative that teachers need to have a way to analyze students' active learning through watching the video before the lessons.
One way to collect structured data is through post-video quiz to assess the amount of information the learners can capture through the video. Another way is through advanced data mining techniques to collect large-scale data, extract actionable patterns, and obtain insightful knowledge (Gundecha & Liu, 2012). With the data mining techniques integrated to a learning analytics platform, teachers can facilitate the assessment of students through a systematic and real-time approach, and identify effective pedagogic changes for particular students (West, 2012). For example, the LMS can provide immediate feedback about the observable patterns so as to predict actions of students such as dropping out, being interactive online, or needing special help in homework assignments.
Results and Analysis
With the features of extending the flipped classroom to mobile platforms, I have chosen Schoology and Youtube because they provide some basic learning analytics tools for analysis. In the following figures, we can see different types of statistical analysis to highlight the participation and learning process of the class and the individual students. From Figure 4 to 7, we can see clearly how frequent learners access to the materials in Schoology and their activeness in participating all the tasks assigned outside of classroom. For example, Figure 4 shows that students usually had a high peak participation rate in Schoology around the time for face-to-face lessons. A similar pattern is observed from other activities such as assignment and discussion.
Indeed, this learning analytics could provide instant insights to teachers about how active students are participating in the learning process, and if they are making progress on a daily basis. In my course teaching case, I often sent emails to bring up the issues and remind students to keep up the pace of learning. I also posted motivating newspaper articles sometimes to stimulate their learning in a particular time when I saw a low login day to encourage them to participate more actively.
However, Schoology does not offer any analytics to monitor the video watching activity. If I only relied on the login pattern and dates of high participation in posting discussion comment, I would assume that students were not learning actively until the time was near to the face-to-face instruction. In order to avoid this assumption, I had to rely on the tools in YouTube to observe the activity of accessing to video and their learning process through watching the video. In fact, YouTube affords the mobile learning analytics to allow administers to observe the activities particular through mobile devices. Figure 8 and 9 show general statistic about viewing frequency and estimated minute watched by the students. When comparing the YouTube statistic with Schoology through dates, we can learn that students could be focusing on learning through watching video before attempting to complete assignments or respond to comments in Schoology. This shows that students relied on the video watching as a preparation for further learning activities including face-to-face classroom participation.
In addition, Figure 10 and 11 show the statistics related to mobile learning in particular. From the analysis we can see that roles of mobile devices served as complimentary extension to the stationary learning. The statistic shows that 83% of the views were through Windows/Macintosh, which is assumed to be relatively stationary than iOS and Android. But it is hard to conclude whether students were not carrying their laptops with the operating systems above. Surprisingly, on the other hand, the average time spent on watching video with mobile devices is 3:46 minutes, which is slightly more compared with 3:39 minutes on Windows and 2:19 minutes on Macintosh. That means students tend to spend a little longer on watching video through mobile devices, and perhaps it is very likely that the students were on taking public transportation where they had less choices to be distracted by walking away from the video compared to home environment. In fact, I did not require the students to login to YouTube to track down individuals for their learning behavior and process. Nevertheless, further analysis could be conducted through in-class interactive activities or online quiz to find out if the students are making any progress after watching the video. To further enhance this idea, I could make use of the quiz to provide instant feedback to students so that students are able to learn some of the information again and review it which may be neglected during the video watching.
Besides, I found it interesting to see that some students accessed the videos from elsewhere outside of Hong Kong. It could be considered as mobile learning too when students traveled to other locations and continued the learning activities, even though there were only 4% of the total view outside of Hong Kong. Undoubtedly, this is one key characteristic of flipped learning model to provide with mobility feature, which also leads to the demands of requiring analytics on mobile learning as well, especially about the video watching related activity. To make good use of this information, I could ask students to share their observation from their visiting countries related to the course, and write some insights while they were away from home to keep up the learning process. From my experience, it is often very emotional when extending the learning while in other places. In conclusion, teaching in flipped classroom can be further enhanced when we consider the information from learning analytics, and learning can be meaningful when teachers can closely observe their progress.
In this case study, the flipped classroom structure has followed the seven affordances in the learning theory proposed by Kalantzis and Bill (2008), which conceptualize the learning process in a structural approach. The reflexive category of Seven Affordances suggests the properties of environment and supports the activities which could not be possible without the help of mobile and other computing technologies. I shall provide a brief description of the affordances, which made the student learning possible.
Schoology and YouTube both offer the access to learning resources, such as video, discussion forum, polling, and other documents, through mobile devices. Students can obtain those materials anywhere at any time. The mobile devices and cloud-based LMS afford the mobile learning outside of the classroom. The statistic even shows that the flipped model with these selected platforms break through the geographical areas, where students can continue the learning wherever and whenever they may be. Compared to conventional classroom teaching, students can only receive directed instructions in the present of teachers and in a fixed location. In the flipped learning case, students can watch the video and receive instant instructions when they are available subject to the network connectivity and battery level. Classroom will no longer be in one single place, and everywhere becomes a part of the classroom.
Active knowledge making
Research works has suggested that active learning can be afforded through flipped classroom (Roehl et al., 2013; Jamaludin, 2014). In active learning, students direct and guide their own learning based on their own interest. By flipping the classroom with mobile supported platforms students are provided with more opportunities to search for further information not only in Schoology but also the web resources to help complete lab tasks. For example, I asked students to create a mind map to connect “Technology” and “Mathematics Education”. The map should be created by using a mobile-supported app called Popplet (2014), and then posted to the discussion forum as a preparation to the first lesson in-class sharing. During the first lesson, I asked students to sit in a group to discuss and introduce their own mind map, and then selected the best one mind from their own group to be presented to the whole class. Instead of providing one suggested mind map, each student did their own version by actively thinking about the terms before the class. Without the affordance of flipped classroom, the regular class time would not have enough time for students to discuss and present it during the lesson.
In this case, different models of knowing presentation were used. The video lectures/tutorials used a mixture of audio narration and screencasting embedded to powerpoint slides. It mimics demonstrations in classroom, while the only difference is to allow students to watch it in their own convenient time with multiple times. Instead of using a textbook with only text and images on papers, the students can capture more information in a dynamic approach with the videos. In addition, students can explore different math concepts using GeoGebratube, which also works well on mobile devices. This particular affordance supports the students to learn with more interactive approach, for example by changing parameters with preset sliders and observe the changes of a geometric shape in GeoGebra. Or, we can create a button to automate the changes with animation.
One key feature of Schoology and YouTube is to provide learning analytic tools for constructive feedbacks to help me as teacher monitor the learning progress and behavior outside of classroom. This is an essential affordance because students are expected to be active learners in the absence of teachers, who are usually present at the time of receiving instructions so as to observe the instant reactions. As I have previously mentioned, the teacher needs to have a way of observing how students learn when they login to Schoology and YouTube. Learning analytics are, therefore, essential to support flipped classroom by providing statistic for analyzing the students’ progress with the absence of teachers. This way supervised learning can be present in the flipped environments. In addition, online quiz in Schoology allows me to collect the assessment data, and provide instant feedback to students on each question they answer either correctly or incorrectly. This could not be done in conventional pedagogy without the present of computing technology.
In my flipped learning structure, students were constantly assigned group activities during the lessons. They were all supposed to have watched the video at home to learn the basics. When they come to the face-to-face environment, students can interact more with each other by collaborating on lab exercises, e.g. designing a lesson with GeoGebra or Excel and creating tools together for presentation at the end of class. From my observation, students were very engaging by constantly discussing how to solve the challenge. If they encountered difficulty in the process of discussion, they could search for references on computers in the lab or their mobile devices. Some of them even watched the video again to review some of the skills I taught. While most of the students were collaborating with their own or web intelligence, I was able to focus on other groups of students and guide them through the activities. This affordance through flipped learning opens the opportunity for me as teacher to involve in the collaborative process for knowledge construction together, where traditional classroom only permits me to focus on delivering the lesson by presenting the knowledge to them in the lesson time.
The idea of “thinking about thinking” is afforded through the flipped classroom activity. The lab exercise provides opportunities to students to think of how to design math tools with GeoGebra and Excel. In the process of designing, students have to think of how learners use the math tools to understand math concepts. This idea is more significant when the class time is dedicated more for the metacognitive activities instead of unidirectional knowledge presentation or demonstration. Indeed, I carefully designed the activities to allow students to think through the lab tasks and design a suitable math tool for their own students, e.g. building a GeoGebra tool for teaching the concept of fraction and division without any guided step. If this task was assigned to students as homework assignment, teachers would not be able to provide too much assistance compared to the opportunity created through flipped learning model. In this perspective, this affordance is enhanced with the e-learning environment with the software technology on one hand and the extra time for metacognitive activities during the face-to-face classroom in flipped model.
With the video lectures/tutorials, students may choose to watch all the videos in full length or portions of them depending on their needs. No doubt, some students may only need to watch a few minutes to get the basic idea and give them an initial start for further exploration. While in traditional classroom, students had no choice to focus on the entire lectures by the teacher until the end, where students were usually not allowed to begin their own experiment and design on computers. Even if they did, they would be considered not paying attention in the class. In my case, students can choose to watch any where at any time according to their own interest, and they can decide to fast forward or repeat any part of the video before joining for further discussion in class. In this sense, flipped classroom affords the differentiated learning and makes it possible throughout the course to cater the different pace of learners. Besides, the lab tasks ask students to build certain math tools without a rigorous requirement, which allows students to be more creative and self-directed in the activities instead of requiring them to follow one approach only.
In this flipped classroom initiative, students were observed to be concentrated and collaborative during the face-to-face lesson. They talked to each other and discussed on each challenge to solve the problems together. When they encountered problems that could not be solved with peers, they would ask for my help and hints. In most cases, students would not want to ask for too much in details because they wanted to demonstrate their own effort instead of following my instructions with no creativity. Although the classroom was silent sometimes when they concentrated on the exercises, I was pleased to see that students stayed focused generally and they even did not want to take break or be dismissed from the lesson until they completed the task. In the same course from last year, I had to cover so much during the lesson before I could distribute any task for students to do. When students began to work on the task for a while, the class time was come to the end. It would not be feasible to restart the same task in the next class period because students would not remember what I taught in previous class time. Thus, it was not that effective to teach in this traditional learning mode.
With the flipped learning approach, students could review some video lectures before attending to each lesson. When they came, I would expect that they had some knowledge in mind and be ready to extend their skills to construct further knowledge. Students could review as many times as possible at home until they learned the knowledge as a prerequisite to the class learning activities. At first, students were not used to receiving instructions through video lectures, and some students said that it was too busy for them to watch the video before class. Yet, they began to realize that they could not demonstrate their proficiency unless they watched some of the videos before each lesson in order to complete the lab challenges. Therefore, students decided to watch some of the video or catch up with the video lectures during the beginning of the lesson.
Learning analytical tools helps me determine the activeness of participation before each lesson. With the feedback from the analytic tools, I could gain insights and adjust my planned agenda in each upcoming lesson to accommodate the needs of students, i.e. giving a mini lecture to recap some of the important skills in the video. Learning analytic is a mandatory affordance to sustain flipped classroom teaching and learning, and it is needed in order to capture the whole learning process of each student. But, the existing analytical tools are not yet mature and fully functional to capture the mobile learning. For instance, Schoology could not distinguish if students spent more time on mobile access or not; it could not help students reflect upon their own learning behavior with individual learning analytics; it did not provide its customized analytics to analyze the data about the video watching. In terms of evaluating the writing of students on discussion forum, Schoology could not help understand whether the words were correlated to other peers’ comments, nor it could automatically send a reminder to students if they were absent from the system for too long. Learning analytics should be redesigned for flipped classroom purpose so that deeper insights can be gained.
One concern that has always been discussed is how to motivate students to watch video before the lesson, or how a teacher can become more professional in giving lectures and tutorials through the video. Indeed, 50% of the students work full time everyday even on the day they came to class in the evening. The summer semester was scheduled to have two evening lessons on two consecutive days. Students told me that it would be very difficult for them to watch video after the first lesson on each week. To accommodate their needs, I released the weekly videos to them before the first lesson so they could have sufficient time to watch. I would also need to adjust the video contents so that they would be more related to the lab exercises. Students would consider watching the videos as a prerequisite to each lesson. Or, I would advice students to take short quizzes at the beginning of each class for grading. But this would require a revision on existing course syllabus, which does not seem to accommodate the special needs from running the flipped classroom.
Nevertheless, there are always students who may not feel interested in the course contents. They would not be willing to spend time outside of class to study and learn. In this case, learning analytics would be helpful to identify students who may need to be paid attention and receive further encouragement. For example, a student who does not log in to Schoology or YouTube for longer than a period of time may be indicated so that I can contact him/her to understand more about his/her needs. During the class time, I could pay more attentions to these students while others could continue to follow their active learning mode to complete the task. This affordance is a feasible solution to cater the learners with different needs.
Flipped classroom provides a digital ecology under the technology-mediated environment, where learning analytics offer a necessary affordance to extend the flipped model to mobile learning. This case study emphasizes the needs of mobile learning analytics and has identified the opportunities and challenges in flipped classroom teaching. From the experience, both students and teachers need to continue to interact and communicate with each other to refine the flipped learning model. More importantly, learning activities including the video lectures/tutorials need to be redesigned to help students find a better connection among these activities. For example, teachers can try to bring up more critical discussions and stimulate their thoughts during the face-to-face lesson. Students can also offer on-going suggestions to teachers through weekly forum discussion on their challenges and new findings through their own inquiry learning. If students find that their learning experience is enhanced with the affordances, they will become more accepted to the new learning approach. However, the teachers cannot control the development of tools for learning analytics because they cannot simply design those tools. It will take a lot of effort to design the cloud platforms to meet the needs. If possible, teachers could use the existing tools first and focus on more interactive activities in class and outside of class. In addition, some students suggested that the video screencasting should be carefully resized to accommodate the small screen limitation in mobile devices, which can encourage them more to access to the video tutorials through mobile devices. That way the students can fully utilize their time for learning purpose.
In conclusion, the model of flipped classroom can become an excellent approach when the affordances are magnified through a careful learning activity design. Teachers and students are required to have more interactions under this model to maximize the effectiveness of this learning approach. It would not be suitable to assume students to learn effectively with "extra resources" at home, rather teachers need to find a new way to obtain recursive feedbacks, e.g. learning analytics and formative assessments, so that the learning process of each student is clearly captured. Especially in this new mobile world, students should be encouraged to take the adventages of ubiquitous learning to maximize their learning anywhere at any time. This way teachers can extend their teaching and reach out to students without the boundry of the classroom walls.
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