Citations and Formatting

Citation Quick Guide

Use our Citation Guide to make sure your article follows the Chicago Manual of Style.

English translations for any foreign titles should be included in brackets following the titles in the original language.

Book Example:

Pirumova, Nataliia. 1977. Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka [The Zemstvo Liberal Movement: Its Social Roots and Evolution to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka.”

Journal Example:

Pirumova, Nataliia. 1977. “Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka” [The Zemstvo Liberal Movement: Its Social Roots and Evolution to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century]. Zhurnal sotsial'nykh korney i evolyutsii [Journal of Social Roots and Evolution] 3 (3): 1–24.

For citations, please remember to avoid these common mistakes:

  • All reference list entries should always include a DOI hyperlink.
    • Please use "" and not "" (in accordance with Crossref guidelines).
  • In-text citations should not have a comma before the publication date.
  • In-text citations for references with three authors should list names for all three authors.
    • ("et al." occurring only when there are four or more authors)
  • Reference list entries must include the full names of all authors, editors, etc.
    • ("et al." should never appear in the reference list)
  • In-text citations should only include a page number when citing a direct quote.
    • If you are not citing a direct quote, please do not include a page number.
  • When using a direct quote, the exact words must be attributed to the source.
    • Please use "double quotation" marks to indicate a direct quote.
    • Direct quotes should contain a page number with the citation.
    • Example: Smith said, "direct quotes contain a page number" (Smith 2016, 34).
  • The reference list should only list citations which appear in-text.
    • If a source is not cited in-text, it should not appear in the reference list.
  • Please refrain from using any of the "citations and bibliography" tools or features in Microsoft Word.
    • These are not editor-friendly software tools and they cause numerous problems during typesetting.
    • Citations and references should be entered as regular text without the aid of any special features or tools.


  • Articles should be formatted according to the journal article template.
    • Use of the template is recommended for Initial Submissions and required for all Final Submissions.
  • Section headers and Subsection headers should be in title case.
  • Images should be inserted within the article document as jpg files with an image resolution at or below 300 DPI.
    • Images embedded as complex features such as "Drawing Objects" are not acceptable.
  • When the use of symbols is required, please only insert symbols using standard fonts (e.g., WingDings, Arial Unicode MS).
  • File formatting should not use advanced MS Word features
    • The use of automatic referencing tools is not acceptable.
    • Drawing objects are not acceptable.
    • Automatic "Table of Contents" features are not acceptable.
    • Bookmarks and automatic index features are not acceptable.
    (MS Word footnotes/endnotes tools are one exception to this rule.)

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