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Jul 19, 2018
08:00-09:00 Conference Registration Desk Open
09:00-09:30 Conference Opening- Dr. Phillip Kalantzis-Cope, Common Ground Research Networks, USA
09:30-10:00 Plenary Session - Mathew Ratner, Associate Director for Sports Tourism, Greater Miami Convention and Visitors Bureau, USA

Mathew Ratner is the Associate Director for Sports Tourism at the Greater Miami Convention and Visitors Bureau. The goal of the Sports Tourism department is to attract, promote and retain sporting events, conferences, and conventions for Greater Miami and the Beaches. Most recently, Ratner played an integral part in Miami being named one of 23 candidate host cities for the 2026 FIFA World Cup United Bid for North America, organizing local efforts with the Office of the Mayor for Miami-Dade County. Ratner has been in the sports business for more than 12 years, working with collegiate as well as professional and amateur sports organizations in various positions ranging from media relations to development and marketing.
10:00-10:30 Garden Conversation

Garden Conversations are informal, unstructured sessions that allow delegates a chance to meet plenary speakers and talk with them at length about the issues arising from their presentation. When the venue and weather allow, we try to arrange for a circle of chairs to be placed outdoors.
10:30-11:15 Talking Circles

Held on the first day of the conference, Talking Circles offer an early opportunity to meet other delegates with similar interests and concerns. Delegates self-select into groups based on broad thematic areas and introduce themselves and their research interests to one another.

Room 1 - Sporting Cultures and Identities 
Room 2 - Sport and Health / Sports Education 
Room 3 - Sports Management and Commercialization
Room 4 - 2018 Special Focus: Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People
Room 1 Problematic Norms and Policies

Gender Based Violence in Sport Settings
Dr. Melanie Lang, Senior Lecturer Child Protection in Sport, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, Lancashire, United Kingdom
Overview: Policy on or relating to gender-based violence (GBV) in sport settings has a relatively recent history. This paper traces developments in this area at a European level and within individual EU Member States’ national frameworks. In doing so, it draws on data gathered in 2016 as part of a study commissioned by the European Commission’s Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency to, among others, describe the current situation regarding GBV in sport at the EU Member State, European Union and international levels. The paper also identifies key issues with existing policy and practice across the EU, and makes recommendations for European organisations, EU Member States and sports organisations to raise awareness of and implement initiatives to manage and prevent GBV in and through sport.
Theme:Sport and Health

Exploring Athletic Officials Ability to be Key Players in Preventing Gender-based Violence
Dessie Clark, -, -, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States
Overview: In recent years, gender-based violence in athletics has gained national attention. Often, these conversations have focused on athletes as perpetrators, and the institutions that house them as toxic structures. Most conversations have neglected the role that athletic officials play in reinforcing problematic gender norms and gender-based violence, both directly and indirectly. This presentation will focus on the beliefs, attitudes, actions, and reactions that make it difficult, if not impossible, for athletic officials to take a key role in preventing gender-based violence. The findings of this mixed-methods study highlight the barriers that athletic officials face in tackling these issues with their colleagues, coaches, and athletes.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Gender-based Sport Empowerment: A Theoretical Mapping of the Go Sisters Programme in Zambia
Dr. Oscar Mwaanga, -, -, Southampton Solent Univeristy, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom
Overview: The notion of empowerment within the sport for development and peace (SDP) sector has burgeoned during the last decade, but despite popularity in policy and practice, there has been an absence of literature progressing sport based empowerment theorising. This paper responds to the call for theory development and application, which is seen as one way to progress the field. Thus, this paper attempts to apply, develop and refine gender-based sport empowerment (GBSE) as a theoretical framework through the work of the Zambian based Go Sisters programme. The analysis moves away from the simplistic application of gender and empowerment within SDP to reveal the mechanisms and social processes that enable women and girls to increase their capabilities to improve control over important life matters. We conclude that future conceptualisations of GBSE should account for the idiosyncratic nature and complexity of "gender" and its interplay with different dimensions of empowerment.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
Room 2 Market Typologies

Opportunities and Challenges of Sponsorship within Elite Disability Sport
Victoria Myers, -, -, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom
Overview: The sustainability of organisations supporting disability sport and athletes, is contingent on their ability to manage increasing pressures of commercialization (Gomez, Martı & Opazo, 2008). Within this environment, the reliance on income generated from various stakeholders, such as sponsors, has become an important feature of disability sport. This presentation draws on a larger research project that aims to investigate how sponsorship decision making processes occur within the context of elite disability sport. In particular, I specifically consider the experiences of elite disabled athletes involved in the sponsorship process. How do such athletes engage in this process, what value do they believe this brings to them, and what challenges are encountered on their sponsorship journey? I explore these questions by drawing upon Bourdieu’s conceptual tools including the notions of social, cultural and economic capital (Bourdieu 1986). Data were collected from (n=5) semi structured interviews with British Paralympic athletes who have successfully secured sponsorship and those that had not. The presentation explores how disabled athletes seek and secure sponsorship early on in their career. In this way, they recognise how this activity contributes to accumulating social and cultural capital in their sport. This research demonstrates that, although there has been an increase in Paralympic sponsorship since the London 2012 Paralympic Games, it is clear that these opportunities are not afforded to all elite disabled athletes and those who are not successful in securing and/or maintaining ‘useful’ sponsorship are acutely aware of how this impacts on their ability to generate valued capital in disability sport and sponsorship.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Extraordinary Devotion to Ordinary Play: Fan Co-production of Professional Sports
Dr. Gillian Oakenfull, Professor of Marketing, Department of Marketing, Farmer School of Business, Miami University, Miami, United States
Overview: In its inaugural season, FC Cincinnati broke every USL league attendance record, often outdrawing many MSL teams in major sporting markets. FC Cincinnati’s mediocre league and playoff performance does little to explain the continued growth of fan loyalty in the team’s second season, including a doubling of season ticket holders, new attendance records, and year-over-year gains in merchandize sales. So how does a town known more for a devotion to bats, mitts, and the oval kind of football, with a fledging soccer team in the third tier of the American professional soccer pyramid, get labeled “Soccer City, USA” by the US Soccer Federation? The answer may have nothing to do with team performance and celebrity players and everything to do with drums, smoke, tifos, and chants – the artifacts of fan devotion and sports ritual on display every home match day in the “Bailey,” a standing room only section in a university football stadium. Using event day observation and qualitative research of fanatical, devoted, and casual fans, this research explores the extent to which these fanatical fans may be considered “co-producers” of the game day experience and identifies the key components of value creation for each type of fan.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities, Sports Management & Commercialization

Big Fix: The Social, Cultural, and Campus Effects of Adding Football at a Small University
Dr. Robert Epling, Arthur H. Hertz Endowed Professorship, Sports Administration, St. Thomas University, Miami Gardens, FL, United States
Overview: In an effort to boost enrollment, small colleges and universities in the United States use sports programs as a recruiting strategy. While most scholarly attention focuses on issues associated with "big-time" intercollegiate athletics, less emphasis is given to similar efforts at smaller institutions. This case study examines the results of adding an intercollegiate football program at a small university (1500 students) by evaluating program impact on campus and community culture, athletic facilities, and institutional finance. The presenter chaired the review committee tasked with determining the feasibility of adding the sport, and authored the final feasibility report.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization
Room 3 Engendered Legacy

Hinkle Fieldhouse: Ensembles of an Iconic Sports Venue
Dr. David Rolling, Associate Professor, Director of the Sports Administration MS/JD Programs & Sports Management BS Program, Kinesiology, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, United States
Overview: This paper investigates whether a sports venue can distinguish itself as iconic. Generally, researchers in sport will attempt to examine characteristics of legacy types as they apply to single or recurring events. However, with a sports monument as rich historically as Hinkle Fieldhouse, it is either more complex, or perhaps more obvious, depending on perspective. By exploring the specific categories of what makes a sports venue iconic, Hinkle Fieldhouse in Indianapolis, Indiana, on the campus of Butler University, is analyzed as to how its "legacy" can be interpreted. The venue's relationship with sport, economic impact, public service, constituent relationships, ethical standards, and historical symbolism can be applied to today's society in a practical approach. The presentation will also discusses how legacies are not generic and can be organized into six specific categories. Current students, those beginning their sports facility management careers, working professionals, company decision-makers, and academics can gain knowledge and perspective from investigating what makes a sports venue iconic.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Bob Devaney and the Development of Husker Nation
Peterson Brink, Assistant University Archivist, Libraries, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States
Mary Ellen Ducey, -, -, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Lincoln, United States
Mary Ellen Ducey, University Archivist, Archives & Special Collections, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Overview: In the 20 years prior to Bob Devaney’s 1962 arrival at the University of Nebraska, the football team had exactly 3 winning seasons. In Devaney’s first year at the helm, the Cornhuskers went 9-2 and won the Gotham Bowl. With the stadium sold out for the 7th game of that season, fans started a streak of sell-outs that is still alive today, currently at 361 games. In the past 45 years Nebraskans have acquired an identity that is often tied to the football program, its development, and its success. The Nebraska fan base has also developed a national reputation for its generosity, loyalty, and support. As the football team and athletics department developed they faced funding and growth challenges, Devaney’s beliefs and goals were occasionally challenged, and he fought hard for the program. While the game results are well known there is still more to learn about the administration and development of the early program. This paper will use archival materials in the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries Archives and Special Collections to explore the development of "Husker Nation" before, during, and after Bob Devaney.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Coaches' Wives: Two Early Case Studies, Alice Graham Sumner Camp and Stella Robertson Stagg
Erin McCarthy, Associate Professor, Humanities, History, and Social Sciences, Columbia College Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
Overview: Based on primary source research, this paper traces the origins of the role of the assistant coach in intercollegiate football to two women: Alice Graham Sumner Camp and Stella Robertson Stagg (wives of Walter Chauncey Camp and Amos Alonzo Stagg, the recognized founders of organized American football) and their contribution to the further rationalization of the sport in the late 19th century. Although their stories are unique, both women served as the "eyes and ears" of their husbands whose full-time positions prevented them from overseeing the day-to-day progress of their team. As a member of the Yale nine in 1888, Amos Alonzo Stagg observed Alice Camp's assistant coaching responsibilities first hand and, after marrying Stella Robertson, a University of Chicago co-ed and enthusiastic football fan, quickly established a working partnership with his young wife modeled after the Camps. This professional, if unpaid, collaboration between the Staggs would continue throughout his coaching career.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
Room 4 Implementation and Evaluation

Roundball Unplugged: The Launch of Basketball's Elam Ending
Dr. Nick Elam, Assistant Professor, Educational Leadership, Ball State University
Overview: The Basketball Tournament (TBT), a $2-million-winner-take-all annual event broadcast on ESPN, adopted the hybrid duration format (where most of each game is played with a game clock, and where the final portion of each game is played without a game clock) for preliminary-round games in 2017. The format (which TBT renamed the “Elam Ending” in recognition of its originator, Nick Elam) is designed primarily to preserve a more natural style of play through the end of every game (specifically, by eliminating/reducing various late-game clock-manipulating phenomena, including deliberate fouling by trailing defenses, stalling by leading offenses, rushed/sloppy possessions by trailing offenses, etc.), to provide greater hope for late comebacks, and to provide more memorable game-ending moments. This paper offers an in-depth analysis of the Elam Ending’s debut, including quantitative descriptive data and qualitative feedback from all TBT games where the format was used. Data reveals the extent to which the format meets its primary and secondary aims, and teams’ use of new strategies unique to the format. Topics also include the production and logistics associated with TBT/ESPN’s implementation of this new format, and initial impressions from TBT organizers, players, coaches, referees, broadcasters, other basketball media members, and fans (in person, on Twitter, and on discussion boards). This presentation provides a range of information valuable to any league/event considering implementation of the Elam Ending, and relates more broadly to the management of any sporting event where experimental rules are used.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Enhancing the Tennis Ranking System: Increasing Fair-play Competition, Fan Participation, and Sponsorship Acquisition
Dionysios Kakaroumpas, Gratuate Assistant , Seidenberg School of Engineering and Information Systems, Pace University, New York City, United States
Overview: Athletes and spectators depend on the tennis ranking system to represent the truest caliber of athletic performance; without trust, the integrity of the game is lost and uncertainty thrives. We see the most obvious signs of derailment in the current system with players placements being inaccurately represented and being rewarded during times of infrequent participation. Therefore, the only solution is an upgraded version that diminishes this perceived trust gap by placing more value on participation. Our approach involves performing week-by-week case studies of top players using the current formula and our proposed change, the results of which reveals ranking inflation. The newly enhanced version is accompanied by a web-based software package to automatically calculate adjusted player rankings based on a responsive, multi-faceted formula that also generates projected point scenarios and provides separate rankings for the three court surfaces. In short, it recognizes and counters the following concerns: mistrust in the system, competition equality, fan engagement, and tennis involvement worldwide. Based on the aforementioned issues we developed a system where: Points are deducted from players who abstain from the tour or have a losing streak for a prolonged period Extra points are awarded for consecutive tournament wins within a specified time frame. Points are awarded for multiple high level tournament wins in a single season. Surface rankings are calculated to supplement an overall ranking V. A scenario simulator to help fans better follow the sport and motivate athletes to play harder and achieve higher goals.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Student Attendance at Collegiate Sporting Events
Stephen Sharbaugh, Student, Stetson University, Deland, United States
Overview: College athletics is one of the most powerful forces on college campus. Many students either participate, work, or have friends in these events, which brings the assumption that student attendance at these events would be a high percentage. But contrary to that belief, overall student attendance at athletic events, across the country, has dropped by 7.1% from 2009 to 2014 and that trend has continued (Axon 2015). In this research, the motivations involved in students attending collegiate sport events will be examined. Stetson University will be used as a case study by collecting data from Stetson students on their attendance preferences and their reasoning. As Stetson is a small Division 1 school where athletic events, except for football, are free to attend, these findings can only apply to other smaller Division 1 schools of similar composition to Stetson. Many studies examine specific sports such as football and basketball, but this research attempts to take a more holistic view and study collegiate sporting events under one umbrella. The satisfaction of watching the sport, team success, marketing promotions, familiarity with athletes, competition level, and convenience as factors that are related to student’s likelihood of attending collegiate sporting events will be studied. Through this research, Stetson and other smaller Division 1, 2, or 3 schools can attain a better knowledge of the motivations and preferences of students, with respect to collegiate athletic events, to increase student attendance.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization
12:30-13:20 Lunch
Room 1 Culture and Identity

Britain, Sport and the South African War, 1899-1902
Dr Peter Donaldson, Senior Lecturer, School of History, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom
Overview: Through extensive press coverage, as well as a spate of memoirs and novels, the British public was fed an on-going diet of war stories and reportage in which athletic endeavour and organised games featured prominently. This contemporary literary material sheds light on the role sport was perceived to have played in the lives and work of the military personnel deployed in South Africa. It also, however, reveals a growing unease over the importance attached to the cult of athleticism in late Victorian and early Edwardian society. Early reverses against the Boers gave cause for both military professionals and the wider public to reassess the validity of the games culture that underpinned the amateur-military tradition and lay at the heart of the British perception of itself as a "sporting" nation.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Japanese Sports before Westernization: Kemari and Sumo
John Van Sant, Assoc. Professor, History, Univ. of Alabama-Birmingham
Overview: Japanese sports, like most of Japanese society, underwent significant changes with the onset of Western based industrialization, imperialism, and capitalism starting with the Meiji Era in the latter half of the 19th century. In this paper, I intend to demonstrate how Japanese sports historically were connected to religion, primarily through festivals related to Japan's native religion of Shinto. The history of kemari (literally "kick ball") and sumo wrestling will be discussed in this context. Moreover, the religious aspect of these historic sports provided a distinctive element of Japanese identity before the rise of modern nationalism.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

House Our Father Built: John B. McLendon and the Rise of Black College Basketball in the 20th Century
Raja Rahim, -, -, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States
Overview: Black College Basketball was not formed primarily as a tool of assimilation into white culture through sports. In fact, Black College Basketball offers a powerful prism through which the history of black manhood, race, and the black family can be better understood. While scholars have demonstrated the centrality of the church and civil rights organizations such as NAACP to black politics and culture, sports, particularly the game of basketball, became a tool no less important than education, church, or politics in black institutional building and affirming black humanity during the Jim Crow era. Using the extended black family as a metaphor, this paper explores the autonomous formation of Black College Basketball (BCB) at Historically Black Colleges Universities (HBCUs) that was created, sustained, and expanded by black men in the 20th century. In doing so, this paper argues that John B. McLendon is the father of Black College Basketball. As originator of the fast break and four corners offenses and the match-up zone defense, McLendon implemented a full court game that embodied an elaborate and flamboyant style that infused the dramas of racial pride and cultural expression that existed in black American culture. It is through McLendon’s house of hoops that we can best understand the centrality of black men and importance of the black family as a self-determined stabilizing force, defensive mechanism, and a foundation for black men and historically black institutions that expressed concerns about and interest in manhood, race, and culture during the 20th century.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
Room 2 Innovation Showcase

MindfullySTRONG: Attention, Awareness and Flow
Dr. Donna Woodhouse, Senior Lecturer, Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom
Mr Dave Hembrough,
Dr Peter Olusoga,

Overview: MindfullySTRONG is an integrated mindfulness and strength training programme designed for people who wish to become both physically and mentally fitter. Each session begins with a mindful movement warm up, followed by a strength circuit scaled to suit ability, before ending with cool down and meditation. The programme includes peer support, with participants encouraged to help each other throughout their journey. Colleagues from coaching, psychology and sociology are involved in the evaluation of this pilot programme which can be adapted to suit specific client groups. In week one, mass, blood pressure, resting heart rate, body composition and predicted VO2Max are recorded. Participants also complete questionnaires to assess flourishing, level of mindfulness, perceived stress and quality of life. Participants keep a journal (written, audio or audio visual) to record their reflections on the programme In week 12, the measures are retaken to assess impact. Another assessment after 3 months measures whether improvements are being sustained. A number of participants are also interviewed post programme to add more qualitative depth to the evaluation of the programme.
Theme:Sports Education
Room 3 The Female Athelete

Transition through Elite European Women's Football Pathways
Dr. Jackie Day, Faculty Director, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, United Kingdom
Overview: Many players experience transitions through their playing career (Wylleman, Alfermann, & Lavallee, 2004).The research on transition in sport has predominately centred on athlete retirement, few studies have examined the transition into elite sport (Bruner, Chandler and Spink 2008). The purpose of this study is to understand the complex issues that European female football players face through their International football pathway and the transitions they face through their football careers. The sample (n=17) were placed into three age categories (18-23, 24-28, 29-35) from six countries (Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Norway and The Netherlands) and were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Content analysis helped organize the raw data into interpretable and meaningful themes and categories. The findings offer preliminary evidence that the first two age categories have a smoother transition through their pathway although many self - sacrifices are evident, whereas the older age group found the transition into elite football far more problematic due to fewer support structures. This lack of resource is evident with the players having to plan sufficiently what they will do after their playing career has finished. The players do not earn anything close to their male counterparts and many of the players have to balance a part time job or education alongside their playing careers and adopting dual careers to enable them to have financial security in the future once their playing career is over.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Impacts of Women's Soccer: A Geographical Study of a Changing Spatial Relevance in Germany and Jordan
Janine Maier, Research Assistant, Professor of Regional Geography, University of Passau, Passau, Bavaria, Germany
Overview: The growth of women's soccer is remarkable in view of the long history of bans and separate treatments. As the political and social patterns shift girls start to rise up. Soccer can be a driver for empowerment. Campaigns, events, role models and the sporting environment itself can inspire women to make a difference in their communities. According to the current discussion on gender issues in sports, women’s soccer is a relevant object of research. In particular the field of Sports Geography provides methods for the research on women's soccer and its spatial relevance. Findings, based on literature review and qualitative data, reveal that there is an ongoing diffusion und increasing importance of women's soccer. That leads to regional impacts and development. For instance changes are visible in the cultural landscape, the sporting infrastructure, the talent recruiting and educational system as well as in terms of gender roles and identities. This paper debates those findings for Germany and Jordan. In Germany women's soccer had to deal with a national ban until 1970. After a dynamic development, Germany is now number two of the FIFA ranking. In Jordan the FIFA`s ban on headscarfs prevented Muslim women from playing soccer. Since the ban was lifted in 2012, Jordan is the leading country in women's soccer in the Middle East. The Kingdom hosted the FIFA U-17 Women´s World Cup in 2016, the first FIFA women's event in the Arab World.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities, 2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People
Room 4 Dynamic Ecosystems

Running 2.0, the Web Graph of a Running Event: Case Study of UTBM and NYC Marathon
Dr. Mathilde Plard, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Nantes, France
Guichet Violaine, Canada

Overview: Running is turning into a very popular mass sport. CHALLENGE project aims to contribute to the understanding of whom the runners are and what are their connections to one running event. We choose the social space of the web to explore those relationships. Web 2.0 provides new insights into the ability of sports events to structure social territories. Data from Twitter are used to assess the dynamic of the WebSpace from the accounts of two iconic races: Ultra-Trail du Mont-Blanc in France and the New York City Marathon in the United States. Web Graphs are valuable tools for exploring and queering the relationships between polarities such as hashtags, users, twitter, links, media. An innovative two-step method has been used to shape the database: capture and extraction of the web to collect twitter data (step 1), import and processing in free software analysis and visualization Gephi (step 2). Results will be presented in the form of graphs to illustrate the analysis of lexical fields and representations associated with events; and mappings to show the spatial radiation of events from the user’s account. The exploratory results highlight the emergence of a social community whose territory functions in a reticular way.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

MLSE LaunchPad: A Sport for Development Model in an Urban Setting
Gillian White, Director, Research and Evaluation, MLSE LaunchPad, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Overview: MLSE LaunchPad is a 42,000 sq ft. Sport for Development facility located in a social housing development in downtown Toronto, Canada. It is a place where youth use sport to recognize and reach their potential. Our focus is on achieving sustainable, wide-ranging social outcomes for youth facing barriers through a Sport for Development approach. Sport For Development is a specific methodology supported by extensive research that suggests the intentional use of sport and physical activity can build healthy communities and help people reach their full potential. We believe in combining sport and youth development programming with a commitment to measurement and evaluation to maximize impact for youth. The facility serves as a ‘living lab’ to explore and measure how sport can help improve the lives of youth. Our programming methodology supports 4 pillars of youth development: Healthy Body, Healthy Mind, Ready For School and Ready For Work. We will be offering a collaborative presentation of our Theory of Change, key learnings, and outcomes from our Sport Programming and Research and Evaluation teams.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Social Spaces: Fostering a Sense of Community at Sports Facilities
Rocky Harris, -, -, USA Triathlon, Colorado Springs, United States
Eric Legg, Assistant Professor, School of Community Resources & Developpment, Arizona State University

Overview: Sports facilities have been built using public subsidies and there is limited research about the community benefits derived from these investments. The purpose of this case study was to examine whether social spaces at sports facilities nurture a sense of community for attendees of the 2017 Arizona Diamondbacks Spring Training home games at Salt River Fields in Scottsdale, Arizona. Social spaces at sports facilities are generally defined as non-fixed seating spaces at the venue where attendees can increase social interactions and foster a sense of community. Non-participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted on-site in real time before, during and after the game. In this study, a connection between social spaces in sport, feelings of belonging and feelings about community among fans, was established. The qualitative research advanced the theoretical understanding of social spaces, as contributors to fostering sense of community for sports fans, which expands on past research that focused primarily on sport participants. In addition to advancing the theory, the findings provide practitioners with insight into the importance of developing social spaces at sports facilities, since sense of community can originate in social spaces.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People
15:00-15:15 Coffee Break
Room 1 Managing Fitness

Evolution to Human Performance Training: An Integrated, Multi-Disciplinary Approach
Chang-Hyun Ko, Human Performance Subject Matter Expert, Army Human Performance Group, Science Application International Corporation
Dr. Coreen Harada, Human Performance, Research & Evaluation Manager, Engineering, Integration & Management Solutions, SAIC, West Point, New York, United States

Overview: Human performance programs have long been critical foci for elite athletes and military service members. These programs are built on the foundations of strength and conditioning and physical therapy, though the last decade has seen the addition of such additional disciplines as nutrition, data analytics, and sport psychology. Advancements in human performance programs represent a move toward promoting individual or group health and well-being in parallel to improving performance. The purpose of an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach is to provide a more holistic approach to training. While the concept is understood that an individual is constituted by connected systems, the method to train and enhance is still often isolated with respective disciplines. The next evolution to human performance training requires true integration of all disciplines to deliver a single unified lifestyle training plan, compared to multiple, but sometimes conflicting, parallel training plans. The purpose of this paper is to offer a look into how this evolutionary approach to a unified human performance training took shape in a military special operations setting. The presenter will discuss the challenges and successes of the shift to a new model. Attendees will learn how to assess their current programs and adapt as needed.
Theme:Sport and Health

Fitness Attributes and Academic Achievement of Non-Science Majors at an Independent University in Central Florida
Dr. Andrew Dutra, Instructor , Science, Eastern Florida State College, Palm Bay, FL, United States
Overview: A hypothesized model of the relationship among these attributes and achievement was tested in Spring 2014. Regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors, which was statistically significant. Gender, number of academic credits (load), and sports motivation had significant direct effects on achievement. Female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Gender’s influence on achievement was partially attributable to the student’s level of stress (e.g., on this exam, male students with higher levels of stress had lower grades than female students with the same level of stress). Students taking more credits were likely to score higher on this exam than students taking fewer credits. As students’ level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and achievement decreased. These results indicated the direct and indirect effects of sports motivation (SDT) and other factors on academic achievement.
Theme:Sports Education
Room 2 Youth Development

Youth Perceptions of Adult Leaders in an SBYD Program
Nneka Arinze, Graduate Assistant, Educational Leadership, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States
Overview: Sport based youth development (SBYD) programs use sports to encourage the positive development of youth participants. Among their key components are 5Cs- caring, competence, connection, confidence, and character. Central to the development of these 5 areas are relationships, especially the relationship between adult staff and youth participants. Previous studies have explored all 5Cs but have not expanded upon youth participants’ perceptions of these relationships. This paper draws from data from a larger study evaluating and in school SBYD program. Participants in grades K-8 participated in focus groups gauging their perceptions of various aspects of the program. Key themes speaking to relationships were staff members cared, were welcoming, and were willing to engage with them. Participants also noted that transient volunteers enhanced their experience by exposing them to new people and improving the game experience when they were fully engaged. The results of this study encourage further exploration of the role of relationships in shaping youth participants’ experiences in such programs.
Theme:Sports Education

Coaches Addressing Attributes of Self-responsibility and Resiliency in a Sports-based Youth Development Program
Sierra Cordova, -, -, Cal State LA, Los Angeles, United States
Overview: This original sports-based youth development program out of a public university in the western United States was designed to increase attributes of self-responsibility and resiliency in at-risk youth in response to prevalent issues concerning youth delinquency in the surrounding urban communities. Program coaches provided at-risk youth opportunities to learn, develop, and practice positive behavior and attributes of self-responsibility (e.g., self-control, honestly, empathy, forethought, resisting negative peer influence) and resiliency (i.e., autonomy, social skills, and hope) through specific and intentional modified games/physical activity. To translate mentioned attributes from the abstract to practice, coaches identified precise outcomes, designed games/physical activities to explicitly address attributes, and constructed opportunities for inherent, emergent behaviors utilized for feedback and discussion between coaches and youth. Youth participants met for programming twice a week with pedagogy and community leadership graduate and undergraduate coaches over two eight-week sessions in the summer of 2017 and spring of 2018. Coaches experienced difficulties 1) designing activities to explicitly address abstract attributes, and 2) focusing delivery and feedback on behavioral skills rather than motor skills/performance during the first session. In response, a conceptual framework was developed that aimed to increase access, maintain deliberateness, and provide tangibility for coaches designing programming. Coaches employed the framework during second session program planning and unanimously reported increased comprehension of outcome goals, improved adherence to intention, and optimized planning. This framework has yielded program improvement and provided valuable assistance to coaches planning game/physical activity delivery for enhancing attributes of self-responsibility and resiliency in at-risk youth.
Theme:Sports Education

Coaching Life Skills through Sport
Rebecca Varney , Student, Management Department, Bryant University, Smithfield, RI, United States
Overview: The purpose of this research is to better understand how a coach’s philosophy may affect the transferability of life skills onto their athletes. Effective coaches have been found to look beyond the idea of winning or losing and have a tendency to develop coaching models based off of improving life skills within an athlete. There is a gap in the literature regarding which contextual factors are linked to the characteristics of a coach’s ability, as well as a coach’s philosophy, in imparting life skills to athletes. Ultimately, the impact of both a coach’s perceived role and expectations regarding how to effectively coach, and their coaching style/philosophy on influencing the development of life skills within their athletes is examined. A combination of content analysis and semi-structured interviews were used to explore both the coaches’ and athletes’ perspectives on the impact of sport participation on areas that move beyond the sport itself. The results of this research conclude with specific techniques coaches can use to impact their athletes both in sport and in life.
Theme:Sports Education

Strategies to Prevent and Improve Childhood Obesity through Sport and Exercise
Dr. Eric Shamus, -, -, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, United States
Overview: Obesity is defined by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile for children and teens of the same age and sex. Although there has been a recent decline in the prevalence of pre-school aged childhood obesity in the United States, the overall prevalence amongst all children, including special populations, remains high. There are various health-related consequences of obesity in children including psychosocial effects, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, type 2- diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, musculoskeletal injuries and others. Factors contributing to childhood obesity can be genetic, behavioral and environmental. Reduced physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle are primary factors for the current obesity epidemic. Engaging in physical activity and improving physical fitness in children with and without disabilities, are areas of focus of Healthy People 2020. Healthcare professionals have the opportunity to play an important role in the prevention of childhood obesity and assist in promoting a healthy lifestyle in children. This presentation will discuss current trends in childhood obesity, strategies to prevent and improve childhood obesity, physical activity recommendation guidelines for children and youth with and without disabilities, cardiovascular response to exercise in children and the role of the healthcare professional in addressing childhood obesity.
Theme:Sport and Health
Room 3 Impacts on Identity

Before Soccer: Sportsmen and Public Spaces in Modern Brazil
Tiago J. Maranhão, Nashville, United States
Overview: Modern sports are an important aspect to understand the relation between physical culture and nationalism. Norbert Elias explains that the concept of “sport” itself takes particular historical configurations with the passage of time. Elias divides “modern sport” into various differential categories. The complex nature of Elias's categorization is evident. I will use the one referring to “active leisure sport”, undertaken by people either as individuals or in a group. Between the final decades of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th, Brazilian cities experienced a new urban reality, with the prevailing ideals of speed, dynamism, and innovation. My research focus on how this new urban atmosphere favored the flourishing of a taste for sports and physical activities in Brazil. Foucauldian concepts such as “discipline” and the “care of the self” will also pave my way to tell how the use of physical culture became a pivotal strategy in shaping modern Brazilian. The study of a northern city (Recife) contributes to the historiography of national identity and sports in Brazil (primarily focused on the southern cities of Rio and Sao Paulo) by understanding the impact physical culture had on the debates that sought to construct a “Brazilian nation.”
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Body Politics of Women in Sport: Understanding the "Deviant Bodies" of Athletic Women
Aiswarya Aanand, -, -, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Overview: This paper deals with the etymology and origin of the term ‘deviant body’ as a social construct and looks at how women athletes with said bodies are understood within the domain of "Gender and Sport." Theorizations on Gender have taken a huge leap in understanding and exploring the multiple identities it can create through the politics of the body. Looking at it through the angle of sports helps us to navigate through the politics that these "gendered bodies" create, where established identities have to be heteronormative in order to be allowed to compete at any level. Considering the body as an investigation ground, this paper looks at the lives of select women athletes like Pinky Pramanik, Santhi Soundarajan and Caster Semenya to analyse how the heteronormativity is enabling or disabling their athletic performances. By undertaking a review of the existing theoretical frameworks on the construction of gender and identity (Butler (1993), Messner (2007)), I attempt to place these women athletes with "deviant bodies" against the backdrop of contemporary "apologetic" practices that are devised to achieve acceptance in the current sporting culture. The paper further explores the Foucauldian concept of ‘disciplined body’ to understand how women’s sport is a location wherein the politics of identity, resistance and sexuality are performed. It further explores how practices of "gender testing" further reiterate the patriarchal ideology of a "feminine sporting image." This paper will serve as a necessary framework to interrogate the disparities in evaluating superlative athletic performances between men and women.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Women in Hell: A Feminist Criticism on the Current State of Women's Professional Wrestling
Professor Michael Rhett, Faculty, Intercultural Communication, Pillar College, Somerset, New Jersey, United States
Overview: World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) is a worldwide cultural phenomenon. It dominates all other major sports and sports’ networks in ratings and on social media. Traditionally, it has been a male-centric industry, but in 2015, the addition of Stephanie McMahon and Paul Levesque, aka Triple H, to the Board of Directors resulted in equality in the women’s division of WWE as female wrestlers began being celebrated more for their in ring ability than for their looks. Accordingly, analyzing WWE through a feminist perspective will demonstrate the newfound equality for women that many feminists have sought for so long, and though there may be disagreement based on the “wave” of feminism to which one subscribes as to whether this equality is true, it cannot be disputed that women’s professional wrestling has achieved more in the past two years than since WWE’s inception. The reason such a claim can be made is because two of these women, Charlotte Flair and Sasha Banks engaged in a match reserved for the best, strongest, and most respected wrestlers: a match called “Hell in a Cell.” Consequently, WWE has elevated women to a position heretofore apportioned for men by sending these two women to hell.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
Room 4 Agency for Change

Motivating Factors of National Senior Games State Participants
Dr. Sandra Shawver, Assistnat Professor, Kinesiology/Sport Administration, Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, United States
Overview: The purpose of this study was to identify motivating factors of senior adults who competed in the 2015 National Senior Games Association (NSGA) state games. The NSGA conducts local and/or state multi-sport competitions serving as qualifiers for the National Senior Games” (NSG) which are held biannually. Challenges facing the NSGA at these events include the decline in community and corporate partners and reaching their target demographic through multiple marketing platforms. Three hundred and ninety-three individual’s aged 50-94 participated in the study by completing an online survey. The survey included demographic, psychographic information and the Sport Motivation Scale-6 to determine specific motivation levels based on gender and the state of participation. Generalized demographic information (N=393) showed that participants ranged in age from 50 to 94 the majority were college graduates and the majority (75%) of participants take part in the senior games to compete and challenge their abilities. Understanding what the motivation is for getting and staying involved will allow the autonomous organizations to better market their product and subsequently positively impact more seniors’ lives. The findings presented in this study may be the initial stepping stone for states to review present practices and consider new or different avenues to introduce more seniors to the NSGA.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

From the Couch to the Playing Field: How Innovative Events Inspire Increased Participation in Sport and Recreation
Dr Katharine Bloom,
Dr. Peter Smolianov, -, -, Salem State University, Salem, MA, United States
Dr. Steven Dion,
Dr. Christopher Schoen,
Mr. Stuart G McMahon,
Christina O'connor,
Brett Bodzinski,
Nick Salamida,

Overview: The continued impact of a sedentary lifestyle, associated illnesses due to inactivity, along with the impact of a relationship the sport industry has with public health and public health advocacy has been reviewed by many authors. One specific focus area includes free and mass-participation events. The objective of free mass-participation events hosted by Salem State University (SSU), i.e. the 2016 Wellness U Multisport Festival and the 2017 and 2018 Generation Games, was to involve SSU students studying sport and recreation management in the development and implementation of new sporting event solutions targeting these social concerns. Students and faculty from the University of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, where Generation Games originated, traveled to SSU in both 2017 and 2018 to join the SSU faculty and students in the management of the events as part of an annual international exchange program and partnership with the city of Salem, Massachusetts. This paper shares SSU’s experience in implementing the projects, while discussing implications for the community and the university as a whole. Surveys of event participants were collected, yielding suggestions for future endeavors to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of attracting and retaining more participants in free mass-participation events.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Cultural Racism, Neo-Nationalism, and Globalization in Contemporary North American Sport: Right-wing Student-Athletes’ Responses to the NFL Players’ National Anthem Protests
Kenneth Sean Chaplin, Postdoctoral Teaching Fellow (Joint-Appointment) , Sociology & Criminology; Exercise Science, Physical Science & Sports Studies, John Carroll University, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, United States
Overview: The intersection of cultural racism, neo-nationalism, and globalization in contemporary U.S. North American Sport is examined via a focus on right-wing student-athletes’ responses to the NFL Players’ National Anthem Protests. Symbolic Interactionism and cultural studies is used as theoretical and methodological frameworks; two focus groups and thirty two in-depth interviews were conducted, of which eight comprise the population sample in this study. Our findings show discussions of race and racism were avoided, neglected, and guised by an exclusive forms of racialized, white privileged, nationalism. Conservative, exclusive, moral arguments root in neo-nationalistic hegemonic patriotism were also invoked. Support for, and assumptions about, U.S. corporation’s rights to sanction protests, along with the ostracization and exclusion of protesters from local U.S. markets were induced as solutions to protests. While student-athletes’ held beliefs about the freedoms and rights of all Americans to protest, in practice these beliefs faded due to cultural racism embed in neo-nationalist approaches that (Trump)ed the freedoms and rights of protesters. Student-athletes’ desires for increased national control over local markets were also invoked. We conclude with a discussion about the impact of cultural racism and neo-nationalism on global sports markets, which offers much insight into the maintenance and perpetuation of local and national control over global injustice and inequality.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Jul 20, 2018
08:00-09:00 Conference Registration Desk Open
09:00-09:15 Daily Update
09:15-09:45 Plenary Session - Frankie Ruiz, Chief Running Officer, Co-Founder, Miami Marathon, USA

Frankie Ruiz co-founded Miami-based PR Racing, which served as the launching pad for the Fitbit Miami Marathon. After growing the event to over 25,000 runners, the company was acquired by Life Time Fitness. Currently, Frankie is the Chief Running Officer of the company overseeing various running and triathlon events in South Florida. He has also been the cross-country coach for Belen Jesuit School since 2002, during that tenure he has led them to 8 State Championships. Frankie is also well known in community for launching launched the popular Baptist Health Run Club Network together with Nike, which encompasses well over 15,000 runners each year. He is now Miami’s Nike+ Run Club Head Coach. Not too long ago, he was invited to give a TEDx Miami Talk on the booming Social Running Movement in Miami. He is also involved in Plan Z, Ludlam Trail & the Underline among several other major park initiatives. He sits on the Miami-Dade County GMCVB Sports Advisory Board, Green Mobility Network Board, Virginia Key Advisory Board and the Parks Advisory Board. Frankie is also part-owner of GoRun Running store.
09:45-10:15 Garden Conversation

Garden Conversations are informal, unstructured sessions that allow delegates a chance to meet plenary speakers and talk with them at length about the issues arising from their presentation. When the venue and weather allow, we try to arrange for a circle of chairs to be placed outdoors.
10:15-10:30 Transition Break
Room 1 Cultural Intersections

Sport for Poverty Reduction by an Organization in Cambodia: The Homeless World Cup
Dr. Chiaki Okada, -, -, University of Osaka, Mino, Osaka, Japan
Overview: The Homeless World Cup (HWC) is an annual event for homeless people. Almost 600 homeless players sent by national partners from over 60 countries participate. These national partners are currently conducting daily activities in 420 venues worldwide. Happy Football Cambodia Australia (HFCA) is an Australian organization, which has held futsal activities in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, since 2006. It offers weekly futsal training to Cambodian youth who are sent from several orphanages and youth support NGOs. We conducted eighteen face to face interviews and a number of participant observations from October 2015 to November 2017. As a result, we realized that almost all of the ex-HWC players had found their learning or working opportunities by themselves, although a few ex-HWC players were experiencing difficult lives. Some ex-HWC players had found their jobs as a coaches or players, and even just as staff members by citing their experience in the HWC. The significance of HWC seems to be expanding with the trends of present Cambodian society as well as with the development of HFCA activities.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Intertribal Contest Powwow as a Sporting Event
Dr. Steven Aicinena, Head Volleyball Coach, Athletics, The University of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX, United States
Overview: Modern Native American Intertribal Contest Powwows share many similarities with American sporting events. Up to 15,000 spectators attend large intertribal powwow competitions held in basketball arenas. As many as 3,000 contestants representing over 700 tribal groups including dancers, singers and drum groups compete for cash prizes. Winners are determined by well-respected, carefully selected judges. Dancers engage in prayer, ritualistic activity, pounding knuckles and issuance of high 5’s, as do athletes before and after competition. Following the judging of each dance, competitors form lines and congratulate one another as do collegiate basketball players in the spirit of sportsmanship. Singers, dancers and drummers travel the Powwow Circuit as a means of generating income for their families as do participants in the professional rodeo circuit. Intertribal contest powwows typically begin with a grand entry, flag song, prayer, and honoring of veterans, not unlike the pre-game activities observed at collegiate and professional sporting events. Powwow vendors hawk souvenirs, concessions and crafts, as do vendors at sporting events. Larger intertribal contest powwows are sponsored, in part, by corporations and branches of state and local governments much like economically important sporting events. Intertribal contest powwows serve to share and reproduce traditional Native American cultural values and traditions through the involvement of Native American youths just as involvement in sports such as baseball, football and basketball is reputed to reproduce mainstream American values. Local and small intertribal powwows do not include competitive events, but also serve to celebrate Native American culture and traditions.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Psychosocial Issues in Pakistani Domestic Cricketers: A Validation Study
Sara Subhan, Assistant Professor, Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Dr. Zahid Mahmood, -, -, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Dr. Sadia Saleem, Lahore, Pakistan

Overview: The current paper highlights the development of a scale measuring psychosocial issues for domestic cricket players in Pakistan. This study was carried out in series of phases including item generation and establishing psychometric properties. A list of 55 psychosocial issues were generated through in-depth interviews of 20 national and international male cricketers. The responses of participants were transformed into a 4-point rating Cricketer’s Psychosocial Issues Scale (CPIS). The scale was given to 373 male cricketers with the age range of 16-28 (M=19.28; SD=3.14). The results highlights the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to identify the underlying psychosocial issues that tend to hamper the performance of cricketers. The psychometric properties, as well as the reliability and validity of Cricketers’ Psychosocial Issues Scale (CPIS) were also established that were discussed in its cultural context and relevance. The implications of the study are discussed in terms of psychological counseling for performance enhancing of cricketers.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

World Cup and Its Challenge to Free Expression Norms in Qatar
Craig LaMay, -, -, Northwestern University
Overview: Qatar is an absolute monarchy without a free press, but at the same time is more progressive than other GCC countries. Citizens and residents have access to virtually all international media sources, but the market for domestic news is tightly controlled. Qatar's current media law is almost four decades, a remnant of a time before the country's rise to financial and political power. A revision to the law was proposed in 2012 but not enacted. What effect will the World Cup have on Qatar's media laws specifically and its environment for free expression generally? Unlike other mega-event hosts like China or Russia, Qatar's soft power strategy is built on sport, education, art and media, all fundamentally expressive enterprises. When the world's media begins to descend on the country in the run-up to the 2022 World Cup, how will Qatar respond? Will international media enjoy greater freedoms than they do now? Will domestic media enjoy greater freedom to report? If reporting norms or laws do liberalize, what changes will last and what will be temporary? Both FIFA and the IOC have human rights commitments written into their charters. As mega-events move increasingly to illiberal countries, what are the consequences for those human rights commitments? Qatar is an interesting test case.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities, Sports Management & Commercialization
Room 2 Development Initatives

Comparing the Practices of US Golf against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and High Performance Sport
Dr. Peter Smolianov, -, -, Salem State University, Salem, MA, United States
Dr. Steven Dion,
Dr. Christopher Schoen,

Overview: A questionnaire was developed for the following elements of the model: talent development; advanced athlete support; training centers; competitions; intellectual services; partnerships with supporting agencies; and, balanced and integrated funding and structures of mass and elite sport. Survey questions were validated by 12 international experts including executives from sport governing bodies, golf coaches, academicians, and administrators. To determine the areas for improvement, 102 coaches completed the questionnaire.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Closing the Sale When It Counts: Developing a Course in Sport Sales
Dr. Dene Williamson, Assistant Professor, Sport Business, Saint Leo University, Saint Leo, Florida, United States
Sam Caucci, -, -, 1Huddle, Newark, United States

Overview: Today’s generation does not lack the skills to succeed in the workforce, but rather lacks the experiences necessary to develop the skills and habits that are critical to succeeding at their job. By 2020, 50% of the workforce will be a millennial. It is a generation that will have played over 10,000 hours on a gaming platform before the age of 21. Using the latest research into how gaming mechanics can be used to place students in situations that enhance the likelihood of developing the necessary skills for the workforce, The Sales Game platform is preparing students for a career in sports. With over 90% of sports jobs starting in a sales or revenue generating role, our education most adapt to the increased demand of employers to hire candidates that have a better, and deeper understanding of how to perform in sales.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Commercialization, Commoditization and Privatization of Football in Asia
Dharav Shah, -, -, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhingar, India
Overview: Football is one of the most watched sport in the world with estimated 3.5 billion fans, with 4 Asian countries occupying the top 10 in the most watching countries. Vietnam, Thailand, India and China being the major football viewing countries in Asia. Football is said to be the most globalized sport and it’s rise in Asia during the 2000’s has shown a major platform for commercialization of the sport so as to develop as a footballing nation producing both individual talent and to be known for its own culture of football. The study would be based on the comparison of various various football leagues throughout Asia and will be compared upon factors such as commercialization, privatization, advertisement and sponsorship, cultural exchange, academic education, youth academy, stadium facilities and infrastructure. This study will help show if commercialization, privatization and commoditization helps the countries to improve their football and also provide us with justification of which model is likely to achieve success. Asian football was majorly overlooked during the 1990’s but in the recent years it has been on the rise with capturing attention of major European leagues and players with the amount of money involved.This year India hosted the Fifa U-17 world cup and it proved to be a huge success in terms of highest attended and most goals scored in a tournament ever. The overall tally of attendance across all matches was recorded to be 1,290,027. The Chinese super league and the Indian Super league are considered to be the top leagues of the country and a stepping stone towards achieving success in football. China has been able to bring top European players to play in the country through money and India has managed to bring retired football greats. Other Asian countries like Vietnam, Thailand, Japan and South Korea are steps ahead with South Korea and Japan both qualifying for the 2018 world cup.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Power of Branded Values: ESPN’s Legitimization of Sports Betting
Dr. Jason Lopez, Visiting Assistant Professor, Communication Arts, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, United States
Overview: Historically, moral and social concerns about gambling have been influenced primarily by the interests of powerful institutions like governments and religious organizations. However, with the success of fantasy football, powerful sports media companies such as ESPN have realized that it is in their economic interests to engage audiences through the proliferation of activities, usually in the form of games, that surround sports. One result of this has been a recent push to legitimate and normalize betting on sports across many of ESPN’s platforms: from explicit discussions of gambling on TV and radio shows, to coverage of various betting activities on the ESPN website and app, to the creation of an entire website focused on gambling. These numerous platforms generally serve ESPN’s avowed purpose of being a lifestyle and not just a sports channel, and in this case they are being mobilized to transform engagements with gambling into natural, everyday activities. This represents a change in the way that influential bodies have attempted to shape perceptions of gambling. Whereas governmental and religious institutions have done so mainly through top-down rules or prohibitions, ESPN is using people’s everyday and mundane connections to its channel and brand in order to shift values surrounding this controversial cultural practice.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
Room 3 Leadership Roles and Impacts

Impacts of a Head Coaching Change on Intercollegiate Student-Athletes
Tricia Jordan, -, -, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, United States
Paula Upright, Assistant Director/Associate Professor, Kinesiology, Recreation and Sport, Western Kentucky University
Dr. Stacey Forsythe, Assistant Professor, School of Kinesiology, Recreation & Sport, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, United States

Overview: The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the impacts on intercollegiate student-athletes subsequent to a head coaching change. This study utilized case study interviews to achieve a rich description of the phenomenon of a head coaching change in one mid-major NCAA Division 1 institution in the Southeast. Psychological Contract Theory and Social Exchange Theory were examined to cognize the concept of athletics as a business and student-athletes as employees. Using inductive analysis and the constant comparative method, three emergent themes were identified: Student-athletes seem to accept head coaching changes. Head coaches are essential to team success. The student-athlete-coach relationship is the core factor of the intercollegiate experience. All participants articulated a metamorphic shift in thinking that began with the shock and anxiety of losing a head coach, followed by a discussion of the coach’s importance, or unimportance, to the success of the program. The participants in this study appeared to be aware of their role as “employees” of the programs and identified a common understanding of their role in the overarching “business”. Administrators, coaches, and support staff can use this information to provide improved programming for student-athletes who experience such a change.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Critical Leadership Challenges in Interscholastic Sport
Vincent Mumford ,
Overview: Today’s sport administrators are facing a plethora of issues. The very livelihood, survival, and future of many sport programs will depend on athletic administrators having a keen understanding of the key strategic issues. The future success of many interscholastic programs will depend on the ability of sport leaders to conceive and implement proactive, cost-effective solutions. As the sport industry grows, it is important for those in that field to understand and analyze current trends or issues that interscholastic athletics face. Information uncovering and exploring those issues deemed to be most pressing may help lead to the implementation of strategic plans to address these obstacles or properly handle difficult situations. This research will help leaders of sport maintain a vibrant and meaningful strategic map; meet evolving member expectations; and continue to provide valued resources, programs and services.
Theme:Sports Education

Positioning the Athletic Director: Perceptions of Internal and External Stakeholders
Dr. Timothy Harper, Skidmore College
Dr. Jeffrey Segrave, Skidmore College
Neil Sinclair, Men's Hockey Program, Middlebury College

Overview: This paper discusses the positioning of the Athletic Director (AD) position in academic institutions. We employ the Collegiate Athletic Leadership Model (CALM) to develop hypotheses regarding how the positioning of the AD role within the structure of academic institutions might influence stakeholder’s perceptions. Specifically, we posit that the “space” the AD position occupies might influence stakeholders’ perceptions regarding the relative importance of academics and athletics. The CALM informs this discussion by positing that the organizational structures of academic institutions may facilitate or hinder the goals and outcomes of athletic departments. If this is true, academic institutions must attend to the positioning of the AD role beyond organizational factors related to hierarchy, authority and power etc. While these factors may serve as the drivers of the decision of where to position the AD role, the resulting perceptions is likely to result in unintended consequences. It is the uncertainty about whether such consequences will be positive or negative that makes AD role placement a primary issue. For example, the positioning of the AD role might influence several factors including: relative contributions (donor intentions and behavior); institutional attractiveness; and faculty, staff and student engagement with academics vis a vis athletics.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Successful Team Leadership: Penn State Women's Volleyball
Dr. David Wolf, -, -, Barry University, Miami Shores, United States
Dr. David Ober,
Russell Rose,

Overview: Based on an in-depth qualitative case study interview with Coach Russell Rose, this session will discuss the various leadership strategies employed by Coach Rose that has led the Penn State Women's Volleyball team to seven national championships since 1991. On December 17, 2009, Coach Rose notched his 1,000th career win with a victory over Hawaii in four sets to advance to his third consecutive national championship game with the Nittany Lions. His impressive career as it relates to his theories on leadership and its application to sports and society will be detailed.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization
Room 4 Women as Change Agents

Workplace Issues for Female Fantasy Sports Journalists
Prof. Mead Loop, Associate Professor, Journalism, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York, United States
Overview: Much scholarship exists involving female journalists in traditional sports reporting, but no scholarship has explored such issues of pay, promotion, harassment and credibility in the workplace of female fantasy sports reporting. Members of the Fantasy Sports Writers of America were surveyed. The quantitative portion of the FSWA survey asked members which issues they found relevant, and the open-ended, qualitative portion offered members a forum for explaining their concerns. Results included little evidence of a pay gap for equal work but a significant difference in advancement. Many female fantasy journalists leave the industry after a decade and following parenthood. Respondents also noted credibility gaps and harassment. Two factors that have not been isolated as affecting retention or promotion were flex time and a lack of need for physical newsrooms, but those are two differences for fantasy journalists compared to traditional sports journalists. Nonetheless, female fantasy journalists face the same obstacles that female reporters covering traditional sports and news have faced throughout journalism history. This survey extends the theory of hegemonic masculinity to fantasy sports journalism.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Sociocultural Glass Ceiling Barriers for Women in Sport Management
Omur Dugan, Assistant Professor, Sport Management, Pamukkale University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States
Overview: When women executives in sport management are examined, it can be seen that there are very few women in top managerial positions in sport organizations. According to the literature review this is called the Glass Ceiling Syndrome. Glass ceiling is an unofficial barrier to workplace advancement, usually in regard to women or minority groups. These unofficial barriers include; multiple roles of women, preferences and perceptions, organizational culture and policies, lack of mentoring, communication networks, stereotypes and discrimination against women. We can gather these barriers in three titles, such as; individual, organizational and socio-cultural glass ceiling barriers. In this study the aim is to find out which kinds of socio-cultural barriers women face in sport organizations in top managerial positions. To find out this, a sample of six women top sport managers were included in the study. They were all assumed to break the glass ceiling and have reached top managerial positions in Turkish sport. Interviews were made with 6 women, which took approximately 50 minutes each. Content analysis were made in qualitative data analyze programme Nvivo-8. As a result of the study it was found that gender based stereotypes was the most important barrier which effected women negatively in their sport administration careers. The other barriers faced as glass ceiling were found to be; gender based vocational distinction, the culture of the country, the country’s socio-economic conditions and finally the non women supportive education system of the country.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

A Field of Glass: Sport Media and Gender Studies
Joseph Recupero, Program Director , RTA School of Media - Sport Media , Ryerson University , Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Overview: In the world of sport media, the phrase "field of play" is an often-heard term indicating where a competition is taking place. It might be a football field, a soccer pitch, a baseball diamond or an ice rink. On each particular field of play athletes know two things: that this is their combat area and that a pre-determined set of rules and regulations will determine how the game will be played. There is a playbook outlining how the game is won or lost. Successful athletes develop a keen sense of how to play and win the game. They instinctively know when to "play smart" and work more defensively; when to force their advantage and be more offensive; or when to "steal a base" and run for home. In many ways the work environment functions as a field of play at the micro level and society itself resembles a field of play at the macro level. The handbook of rules that women are faced with in society mirrors the complex array of hidden rules and resistance they meet in the workplace. This applies- particularly in terms of gender relations - in the world of sport media. It is not necessarily a field of play that women must navigate in sports production or broadcasts. Rather it can be viewed as a field of glass, with invisible barriers and precarious undercurrents such as the intersection of race, class and sexuality that can affect women's roles and status within the world of sports.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Gender Discrimination in Sports: Issues and Myths Surrounding Gender and the Path-breaking Approach of the Olympics Agenda 2020
Manvendra Jadon, Student, Law, National Law University and Judicial Academy, Guwahati, Assam, India
Overview: Gender, albeit for all the wrong reasons, has been at the forefront of debate in the modern world. The pathogen of gender segregation has been deep rooted among the ethical divisions of the international community. There are no merits for such segregation in the light of the effervescent concept of Equality that has been adopted by all the forward thinking nations of the world. Sports for centuries have largely undermined the role of women and thus has been mostly unsuccessful in breaking the stereotypes regarding gender in the society. The perception of women in sports has transformed from horrific to stable in the past century and their presence can now be felt from the Olympic turf to the Administrative chairs. Even though these changes are visible, they are limited and the stereotypical nexus between women and weakness still remains. The 206 member committees strong Olympic Movement spearheaded the crusade against gender equity for years, a feature clearly evident from the women participation and inclusion of events for women in the Olympic Games in initial years. Although, advanced economies have achieved significant results, a holistic change in the perceived bias and pre-conceived notions of the opposite gender is still beckoning. Even though “Women’s sport is an expression of the right to equality and the freedom of all women to take control of their bodies and participate in sports publicly, regardless of nationality, age, disability, sexual orientation or religion,” sports bodies and regulatory authorities have little or no regulations mandating the gender neutral spaces in the field of sports and this has critically imbalanced the growth and development of women in sport. Amateur athletes from a very tender age are subjected to the misogynistic views of the authoritative paternalism due to which they have to forego the opportunity to make a career in the world of sports. The condition of the disadvantaged communities and indigenous tribes is even worse as they face racial vilification on a regular basis which has led to a significant fall in their participation rates in spite of the existence of a plethora of rights based policies for the protection of their claims. To move out of the traditional channels of thought-process, this study adopts a socio-legal perspective to break the glass ceiling of myths regarding women participation in sports and to act as a catalyst for the betterment of the law and policy structure governing free and equal participation. Along with this, the research work tries to explore the efforts undertaken by International forums and authorities to tackle the menace of discrimination and how certain stereotypical barriers the society need to overcome in search of a level playing field. In a conclusive manner, the research work tries to comparatively analyse the position as it exist in developed and developing economies and find the best solutions.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities, Sport and Health, 2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People
12:10-13:00 Lunch
Room 1 Poster Session: Room 1

From Sports Games to the Gaming of Sports: How Video Games Are Transforming Sports
Dr. David Keck, -, -, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Helena Hansson, -, -, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, United States

Overview: Sports video games have been around since the 1970s, but only within this century have they begun to transform the sports themselves. For many fans and athletes, their experience of sports is now interwoven with video game franchises. Marketing arrangements integrate weekly events in sports with changing game play. Coaches program playbooks into Madden NFL so Pop Warner and college players can learn complex plays. Gamer-fans enjoy both watching and “making” Steph Curry hit a 3. Gaming-inspired analytics are changing the way college and professional teams prepare for real contests. Various e-sports agencies are seeking inclusion in the Olympics, and studies of the physiology of e-gamers are redefining the question of whether video games are indeed sports. Playing games like FIFA are creating first-time fans of the professional leagues. A combination technological advances in entertainment and data-analytical capacities, the financial synergy of the billion-dollar gaming and sports industries, and the reality of athletes growing up playing games have led to striking transformations of sports for fans and athletes alike. This poster session examines these dramatic changes through a focused presentation of select sports games (with demos); a critical synthesis of existing literature; and a survey of collegiate athletes.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Endurance Exercise: A Systematic Review
Kayla Albrecht, -, -, Eastern Illinois University, Freeport, IL, United States
Dr. Jeanette Andrade,

Overview: Articles were extracted from PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. Searches were limited to the time range of January 1, 2011 to January 1, 2017. An 8-point inclusion criteria was applied to titles and abstracts of extracted articles, and the quality of articles was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Manual. A total of 169 articles were found and 15 were examined after applying inclusion criteria. Seven articles were included in the study based on quality assessment. The common outcome measures to evaluate endurance performance of the participants included Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE), pleasure ratings, feelings of fatigue, and exercise performance. All studies reported improvement in at least one measure of endurance exercise when caffeine was consumed. Though further research is needed, the evidence supports caffeine consumption prior to exercise as an effective strategy to improve several aspects of endurance performance.
Theme:Sport and Health

Physical Literacy and Physical Activity of Pre-Service Teachers
Dr. Jon Aoki, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX, United States
Overview: In the United States, there is a rise in obesity and its related metabolic diseases. These health issues are now ubiquitous around the world. One of the contributing factors is the decline in physical activity. As a result, there has been a concerted global effort to offset a sedentary lifestyle through physical literacy programs. Regular physical activity may produce long-term benefits such as weight management, lower risks of heart disease and diabetes, and an increase in general well-being. However, physical literacy encompasses the individual’s capacity to engage in a physically active lifestyle. A discussion on physical literacy must include motivation, confidence, and knowledge. This study described the physical literacy and physical activity of pre-service teachers. The findings from this study provide practitioners and researchers a greater understanding of the physical literacy tenets held by pre-service teachers and a glimpse of the healthy lifestyles practiced by these individuals. This knowledge may be translated into the construction of physical literacy programs to battle childhood obesity and metabolic disease.
Theme:Sports Education

Playing in Exile: An Analytical Framework for Studying Sports Programs for Refugees
Helena Hansson, -, -, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, United States
Dr. David Keck, -, -, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Overview: Political and economic crises have forced over 60 million refugees, most of whom are under 18, out of their homes. Diverse entities have turned to sports to address this global crisis. International organizations such as the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee; national sports agencies; individual professional teams; religious institutions (including the Vatican); and even local police departments have all promoted sports programs or are forming new partnerships with a wide array of goals. Some programs simply seek to provide some normalcy in terrible camp conditions. Others include educational opportunities, such as learning local languages. Still others seek to use sports’ social power to integrate peoples of different cultures into new, quite unfamiliar worlds. Some presuppose long-term needs; others address only short-term requirements. This poster session examines this diverse array of sports programs through reviewing their public materials (including their marketing and fundraising activities), interviews with organizational leaders, and synthesizing extant scholarly reviews of specific programs (as well as assessments commissioned by various agencies). By developing a model for investigating and categorizing how sports associations evolve to meet new human needs, it provides a necessary initial step for assessing the impact of sports on the lives of millions.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Identity Construction and Fandom in Sports and Politics
Michael Delayo, -, -, Rowan University, Glassboro, United States
Overview: People's passion for their favorite sports teams has long influenced the construction of both personal and cultural identity. Fans of different teams from different places make meaning in ways unique to their environment, a process also practiced by politically engaged Americans. The similarities between these passions have been explored to an extent, but the relationship's effect has been the subject of limited scrutiny. The rapid rise to prominence of social platforms such as Twitter and Facebook have coincided with advancements in audio and video streaming to revolutionize the way fans interact with and consume their passions of choice. The 2015 rape allegations against former Florida State University quarterback Jameis Winston and the 2016 election of Donald Trump as President of the United States provide a perfect platform for an analysis of the intersection between fandoms in these two spheres, which this paper investigates. Classifications typically used to measure levels of fan identification with sports teams are successfully applied to American politics. The role of increased volume of and accessibility to new media content in this application is discussed. Donald Trump’s unique relationship to politics is also explored through analyses of the Trump Organization brand and Trump’s individual performance of fandom as a politician. Finally, the reaction to rape allegations against Jameis Winston highlight the implications of the similarities between fandom in sports and politics. Fandom in sports and politics is not cultural fodder, but a tool that can be used to understand who the American people are and why.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Community Based Learning and Sport Management Undergraduates: Exploring Tolerance for Ambiguity
Kristi Sweeney, Associate Professor & Director Sport Management, Leadership, School Counseling, Sport Management, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, United States
Megan Schramm Schramm-Possinger,

Overview: This study assesses sport management students’ tolerance for ambiguity (TA), as well as their perceived learning gains, after completing an upper-level, community based learning course. As part of the class, sport management students were responsible for creating, implementing, executing, and evaluating a resource development plan for a local non-profit organization. All are important competencies – requiring the kind of adaptability often reported to be under cultivated in sport management graduates – subsumed within multiple program-specific student learning outcomes. Results indicate that those who had a lower tolerance for ambiguity reached a higher percentage of their goal. Additionally, qualitative analyses of self-reported learning gains indicate students’ perceived ability to effectively fundraise, negotiate the challenges of group work, and gain real-world experience. Other reported benefits include cultivating professional skills (i.e. critical thinking and leadership), personal growth, and vocational exploration. These data also make clear the salience of determining what skills and dispositions are associated with student success, collecting both qualitative and numeric/categorical assessment data, and the importance of considering variables, such as TA, when designing curriculum and assessment measures. Our findings provide a more nuanced picture of students’ TA and suggest that students’ ability to adapt to emergent, real-world situations is not equivalent to feeling comfortable taking on projects in the absence of clear goals. Lastly, our findings fill a gap in the literature regarding how to foster student preparedness for “real world” experiences, and serve as model of how faculty and administrators can successfully integrate CBL in experiential sport management coursework.
Theme:Sports Education
Room 2 Focused Discussions: Room 2

Emotional Needs of Student-Athletes: Teaching Relationship Management and Emotional Intelligence
Brianna Lynne Anderson, -, -, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, United States
Dr. Kelly Bost, -, -, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, United States

Overview: Athletes are immersed in a culture of aggression that does little to promote healthy relationships and emotional intelligence (EI). As emerging adults, collegiate student-athletes (SAs) are susceptible to underdeveloped self-regulatory skills and EI, affecting athletic performance, academic achievement, and interpersonal relationships. Preventative education can improve EI before dysregulation cycles are ingrained. In preliminary focus groups with current SAs, we found that many struggle to identify, understand, and manage emotions in both athletics and their daily lives. Based on these findings, we adapted two lessons from the Dibble Institute’s evidence-based Love Notes curriculum to address the most salient issues for SAs. These workshops have been delivered to SAs in their Freshmen CHAMPS Life Skills class in Summer and Fall 2017. Efforts were evaluated by SAs, and two primary themes emerged: knowledge of the topic improved after the workshops and more education on relationship management and emotional wellbeing was desired. Such feedback indicates a need to continue to build EI and relationships skills through programming. We need to identify other relevant emotion management topics and adaptation and development of workshop material that can be shared across collegiate campuses, beginning with a focused discussion among professionals at the Sport and Society Conference.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

A Human Rights-based Approach to Sport: Improving Access to Sport through Human Rights on Community, Interpersonal, Policy and Global Levels
Melissa Otterbein, Graduate Assistant, Department of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences, The George Washington University
Overview: In developed countries, youth sport participation remains a hallmark of childhood for most children of middle to higher income backgrounds. In lower-income countries as well as America’s low-income neighborhoods, sport access is limited. Data from the Aspen Institute of Sport and Society found that children from low-income households are half as likely to play one day’s worth of team sport than children from households earning at least $100,000. How do we make sport equitable for all, including those most often left out of sports participation, such as women, immigrants, people of color, refugees, and those who are differently-abled? Through a UN human rights framework, this focused discussion will discuss goals, processes, outcomes and strategies for coaches, policy makers, practitioners, researchers, and managers to apply a human rights-based approach to sport in order to increase access for all populations while contributing to community identity and development. Sports' contribution to the global Sustainable Development Goals will also be discussed to leave participants aware of empowering frameworks for a variety of contexts, both domestically in the US and globally. Attendees will be able to articulate how sports greatly contribute to global and community level development agendas.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

How the World Anti-Doping Code can turn Heroes into Villains
Matthew Kaiser, Associate, Legal, Global Sports Advocates, Portland, Maine, United States
Overview: As an international sports lawyer who specializes in representing athletes who have been accused of doping, I have experienced how sport and the structures put in place have impacted both athletes and fans alike. With the news about the Russian State-sponsored doping program breaking in 2014 and escalating leading up to the Rio and PyeongChang Olympic Games, society has established certain biases and preconceived notions about athletes who are accused of doping and do not fully appreciate the particular facts or the governing laws in place which can determine whether an athlete is guilty of an anti-doping rule violation and if so, how long his or her sanction will be. I would like to present on the practical applications of the World Anti-Doping Code, which is the conceptual framework all of the doping violations are based on. The unique circumstances of each case have made us reassess how the Code is structured or should be structured. The outcomes and takeaways from my experience are that not all athletes are cheaters and unfortunate circumstances have put them in this situation (bad advice from others, even doctors, or contaminated supplements). The implications from my work are that there clearly needs to be a reassessment of the sanctioning scale in the Code, athletes need to do more to protect themselves from doping violations, and society must take a moment to understand the circumstances involved before rushing to judgment about athletes accused of doping.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

The Collateral Consequences of Equipment in Gridiron Football
Cullum Brownbridge, Master's Candidate , Department of Sport Management, Brock University, St. Catharines, Canada
Overview: Sports equipment has evolved over time to both enhance performance and to reduce the risk of injury. Protective equipment is particularly important in contact sports where injuries are frequent. In American football, helmets and shoulder pads are two pieces of protective equipment which are strictly implemented to absorb hits of massive force to reduce the risk of head and upper body injuries respectively. While the risk of injury is reduced, the athlete's calculated perspective of risk is altered. This change in risk equilibrium has the unintended consequence of the individual foregoing caution and playing in a faster and more aggressive style. This altered behavior not only increases the individual's own risk to injury, but also puts other athletes who are on the receiving end of contact at greater risk themselves. This displacement of risk is particularly dangerous when an athlete is hit in an area that is unprotected and vulnerable, or in an area where the equipment is not as effective as perceived. Drawing on existing research and theories of risk in sport, this preliminary study will examine the relationships and potential disjuncture between sports equipment changes, athlete perceptions of injury risks, and actual injury risks, and will outline future directions for this research.
Theme:Sport and Health

Making a Difference : A Mentoring Program Partnering a Collegiate Sports Team with an Inner City Public Middle School Team
Melissa Falen, Professor, Notre Dame of Maryland University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Overview: I would like to present my practical experiences in a mentoring program I started which involved pairing our collegiate women's lacrosse team with a Baltimore city public middle school team. The focused discussion would include the purpose, obstacles, challenges, and benefits of such a program. My purpose was two-fold. I wanted our players to "give back" and I wanted to contribute to attempts to diversify a sport which is one of the least diverse sports sponsored by the NCAA. While the women's participation in NCAA lacrosse has more than doubled since 2000, the % of African-American participation has only increased from 1.6% to 3.3% according to current NCAA data. I believe that a partnering program if adopted by numerous schools could encourage participation in sports like lacrosse in under-served communities. My experience involved working with coaches in the inner city schools, working with Parks and People, and with US Lacrosse. I obtained a grant from US lacrosse to support this partnership. The partnership involved our team traveling to the partnered middle school to give clinics and run practices with the middle school players. We also hosted the middle school team on our campus for practice sessions and play. Middle schoolers attended collegiate games and on one occasion the NCAA championship. We incorporated a tour with our admissions staff when players were on campus to introduce the middle schoolers to campus life and hopefully encourage interest in attending college. Through the course of this partnership, I was able to identify some best practices, as well as obstacles to success.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People
Room 3 Virtual Poster Session: Room 3

Gentrifiction Legacy
Peter Evans, -, -, AMOS London Sport Business School, London, United Kingdom
Overview: This papers examines the consequence of regeneration in the aftermath of the London 2012 Olympic Games. In particular, the issues of gentrification and displacement are discussed in examining the unique impact that the Olympic Games have had, and continue to have, in reshaping social and urban areas across the London Olympic Boroughs. Legacy has become a core dimension of mega-event bidding and hosting strategies. Since 1999, the principle of sustainable development forms (a discretionary) part of the contract between the IOC and host city. However, one of the impacts of regeneration is to create an environment that is appealing to property investors, which increases property values and can lead to the displacement of the very people that regeneration seeks to assist: low-income families (Lees et al, 2008). The paper is based on mixed method research, which facilitated both confirmatory data (the House Price Index - HPI) and exploratory case studies. The qualitative data is based on a "key case" approach. Supplementing the case studies, 54 questionnaires were administered to random residents, with the objective of establishing the interviewee’s positive and negative perceptions towards London 2012 legacy. The HPI provides evidence that, between July 2009 and July 2014, the Borough of Hackney has experienced enormous levels of gentrification-related house price growth (82%), significantly above the London average (48%). The qualitative case studies provided rich and contrasting data.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Re-establishing Identity through Sport: The Influences of Participation in an Elite Paralympic Military Sport Program on Active Duty Service Memebers with Acquired Disabilities
Lindsay Hammond, -, -, California University of Pennsylvania , California University, Pennsylvania, United States
Overview: =A phenomenological approach was employed, using a three phase semistructured interview protocol to capture military journeys of four (4) service members who had sustained a physical disability as the result of a combat injury and chose to remain on active duty status as a part of a specialized unit designed to prepare service members for the Paralympics. Results: Three themes were identified with implications on the saliency of the service members’ identities. These were goal orientation, champions through transition, and the unit. Participants reported that participation in the specialized unit provided new challenges and opportunities, inspired both athletic and military goals and provided the opportunity to continue to serve. Conclusion: Concepts self-determination theory (STD) were evident across the participants’ accounts of their military careers. The findings portray a group of highly self-determined service members, who throughout the course of their military journey experienced a strong sense of competence, relatedness and autonomy. The elite military sport program provided infrastructure required to foster the salience of a service member identity.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Media, Money and Fame in Women’s Sports in Australia
Dr. Chelsea Litchfield, Senior Lecturer and Associate Head of School, Exercise Science, Sport and Health, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia
Overview: Women’s sports in Australia have traditionally placed a distant second to men’s sports. Such second-rate treatment has been obvious through remuneration and media interest. Nevertheless, the last two years have seen the establishment of the inaugural women’s Australian Rules Football competition, a new Australian ‘National Netball League’ and the Women’s Big Bash League (WBBL) cricket competition. All of these sporting competitions have one thing in common, that is, media interest. All competitions have broadcast deals with major television networks in Australia. The message in the sports media in Australia is that women’s sports are taking over our screens, being remunerated more handsomely and becoming more high profile. However, there remain enormous disparities between male and female athletes and sporting competitions. These disparities focus on the amount of media coverage received by male and female sporting competitions and the remuneration paid to male and female athletes. In particular, this study focuses on the Australian Rules Football competition and the WBBL competition in Australia. These themes will be analysed using a third wave feminist lens to more clearly understand the differences (or similarities) between men’s and women’s in sport in Australia.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Ball is Life: Black Male Student-Athletes Narrate Their Division I University and Athletic Experiences
Eno Attah Meekins Attah Meekins, Los Angeles, United States
Overview: This study focused on the experiences of Black male student athletes in Division I university sports programs and utilized Critical Race Theory as its framework. This exploration sought to understand to what extent the legacy of racism in the United States has impacted the collegiate experience of these student athletes. Through the use of Critical Race Methodology the researcher presented counter stories that highlighted successes and heightened awareness regarding the needs and concerns of an extremely important, but often silenced population. This research examined the experiences of Black male student athletes in the Division I revenue-generating sports of basketball and football. This study acknowledged and presented how Black males perceived the effectiveness of NCAA supports in place for their academic success, degree attainment, and post-collegiate leadership and career opportunities. The researcher offered suggestions which Black male student athletes believed more effectively served their needs during transition into, for the duration of, and beyond Division I University sports participation as an opportunity to move towards more socially just practices in Division I academics and athletics.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Exploring the Importance of Coach-Player Relationship in Inclusive Tennis Programming
Nadina Ayer, Academic Staff, Kinesiology and Physical Education, Wilfrid Laurier University , Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Overview: Athletes can develop many interpersonal relationships. The most important relationship can be the one athletes develop with their coach as it can have the greatest influence on the training process, performance outcomes, and satisfaction with sport experience. The understanding of the importance of coach-athlete relationship in inclusive sport continues to be limited. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to describe the role coach-athlete relationship can play in inclusive tennis programming, to demonstrate adaptation techniques and strategies using an athlete-centered approach, and to present potential implications for practice and research. The complexity of the coach-athlete relationship including its meaning and key components are discussed. Accessibility to inclusive sport is considered.
Theme:Sports Education

Formalization of Sports
Sravya Gurram, -, -, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India
Overview: There has been a long standing discussion whether sports can be considered as an art form. Various scholars have laid down their arguments on why sports can or cannot be considered as an art form. The sports-art conundrum originates from the lack of a formal definition of sports. The aim of this paper is to put an end to the sport - art conundrum by constructing the tools required to arrive at a formal analysis of sports. Building and gathering the tools required to arrive at a formal grammar of sports, thus formalizing sports, contributes to the majority of the work.The tools constructed for the formal analysis are graphical representation of sports, typologies and vocabulary. The graphical representation of sports takes shape with the help of the serializability factor, events and the governing rules of the sports. The graphical representation of sport allows us to glance at the concept of sport in a technical point of view - as a list of events and as a list of sequence of events, instead of granting sports, a higher respectability by juxtaposing sport with art. Typologies and Vocabularies help in the abstraction of the graphical representations of sports.The abstraction allows us to arrive at a formal analysis of sports, which is the main focus of this paper.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Surf Therapy and Differently-abled Children: Extending Waves for Change's Child-friendly Mental Health Surf Therapy Program to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nicci Van Der Merwe, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Director, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning, Waves for Change, Muizenberg, Western Cape, South Africa
Overview: This paper provides the findings of an internal study of Waves for Change’s (W4C) surf therapy program, piloted with a group of learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Learners with ASD often present with ongoing social-communication problems that include difficulty communicating and interacting with others, repetitive behaviors as well as limited interests or activities and sensory integration issues. W4C’s surf therapy program has proven that children who complete the 12 months program have increased school engagement, decreased anti-social behavior, as well as increased school performance. Given these and other positive changes the surf therapy program has proved to have on the well-being of participants, W4C conducted research on the pilot ASD surf therapy program, to establish whether the program brought about similar, or different, changes to the children with ASD. Two qualitative data collection methods were used to collect primary data, namely direct observation, and in-depth, unstructured interviewing. Secondary data was collected through the revision of existing literature on surf therapy and differently-abled children. The research found the effects of the program were positive on the participating children, reporting more confidence, improved social interaction, an increase in communication initiation, increased verbal output, an improvement in peer relationships, and less aggressive outbursts. In addition, the immediate effects of the ASD surf therapy pilot program extended to the W4C surf coaches and mentors; including increased confidence to work with differently-abled children, improved non-verbal communication, an increased understanding of and empathy toward disabilities, with a decreased stigmatization toward people with mental illnesses.
Theme:Sport and Health
Room 4 Virtual Lightning Talks

Preliminary Examination of the Role University Study Plays in Preparation for Teaching Physical Education in the UK
Claire Mulvenna, Associate Lecturer in Sports Coaching, School of Sport and Biological Science, University of Bolton, Bolton, Lancashire, United Kingdom
Overview: Upon completion of an undergraduate degree programmes graduates enter the competitive employment market with the aim of securing appropriate employment in an area of interest. While many sports graduates enter the sports science and sports coaching workforce a large proportion aim to gain employment in physical education teaching. This study focused on the perception of final year students and aimed to identify if the students believed that they held the appropriate knowledge, practical delivery skills and experience to enter a graduate teacher training programme. A case study approach, including semi structured interviews were carried out to collect data. The semi structured interviews took place with 3 full time female physical education teachers and 3 female final year sport students. The findings of this research indicated that while final year students felt prepared for further specific teacher training they did not feel prepared for employment as a physical education teacher. This observation was in parallel to the physical education teachers who felt that "learning on the job" was of more value that their University studies in Sport.
Theme:Sports Education

Cardiovascular Response to Lower Body Movement Dysfunction in Division II Collegiate Swimmers
Dr. Victor Romano, -, -, Catawba College, Salisbury, NC, United States
Rebecca Frost, -, -, Catawba College, Salisbury, United States
Rebecca Bradford, -, -, Catawba College, Salisbury, United States

Overview: The purpose of this study was to identify postural factors that negatively affect cardiovascular performance in Division II collegiate swimmers. Seventeen Division II collegiate swimmers (age 19.7 ± 1.3 years; height 176.9 ± 8.63 cm; mass 74.1 ± 8.48 kg) completed an overhead squat analysis, 2-miunte maximum wall sit, and 2-miunte maximum plank prior to completing a mock-style swim meet. After maximal exertion, heart rate, and blood SpO2 oxygen saturation arterial hemoglobin levels were captured. RESULTS: Total number of muscular imbalances, upper body and lower body muscular imbalances combined (r = 0.86, μ 7 ± 3.5, N 14). Lower body postural factors did not significantly (r ≥ 0.95), however it had multiple meaningful relationships which affected cardiovascular response (lower crossed syndrome: r = 0.71, μ 0.44 ± 0.51, N 7). Upper body postural factors did not significantly (r ≥ 0.95) or meaningfully affect cardiovascular response. Key indications of posture distortions were prevalent within the lower body, which lead to a higher than normal onset of lower crossed syndrome. Correcting these muscular imbalances may lead to improvement to cardiovascular response, however small, can be the difference. In swimming, every .01 of a second counts.
Theme:Sport and Health

Invigorating Mind and Body through Physical Activity
Anika Leslie-Walker, Lecturer , Sport & Biological Sciences, University of Bolton, Bolton, United Kingdom
Overview: Both the government and local communities have opened doors for adults who would otherwise not have considered active participation in regular physical activity. The stigma attached to physical activity of a particular age is still rife and this creates more challenges. Local councils, communities and churches have opened up associations and centres, in order to entice specific generations to get involved in leisure activities. However, such initiatives have not been welcomed by everyone and creates a virtuous cycle in which such individuals can be helped to overcome their defiance. This study seeks to rejuvenate the adults mind and body through physical activity which seem to be alien to their wellbeing. The findings from the qualitative study suggest that the participation of adults in physical activity, for adults aged over 55 make them initially apprehensive albeit allure. However, in the course of regular participation in physical activity, the conceptualised stigma is challenged. As a result, participants begin to appreciate the importance of organised activities within a habitual and familiar environment; acknowledge the benefit of meeting new people and value community cohesion. The study concludes that physical activity can invigorate the mind and body of adults aged 55 and over; participant considerations such as appropriate intensity levels, health and wellbeing assessments, vulnerability and the familiar environment are a necessity for success.
Theme:Sport and Health, 2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Parent and Athlete Relationships in Youth Sport
Dr. Bradford Strand, Professor, Health, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States
Overview: For many families, sport constitutes a central role in parent-child interaction, parent-child time together, and family leisure time. Parents and coaches play the most distinct role influencing adolescent athletes. Parental involvement reflects a dedication to the child and positive attention to the child-rearing process. However, it is well known that the actions of many parents turn their children from sports. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth athlete relationships. Subjects (270) were college students from ten states (US) who completed a 15-item survey that included the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire (PISQ) and opened ended questions. For this paper we analyzed qualitative data from three open-ended survey questions and PISQ data. For each open-ended question, major themes were identified. From this study we learned that 40% of subjects had dropped out of a youth sport; that the #1 reason for dropping out of youth sport was a change or interest; that most positive experiences young athletes have with their parents include parent presence at events, parent support during and after events, and parent encouragement; that most negative experiences youth athletes have with their parents include parent absence from events, unwelcomed coaching, and parent pressure; that the best experiences with parents after an event or game was when parents provided recognition; displayed pride, and other support; and that subjects perceive that their fathers provide more directive behavior and pressure while mothers provide more praise and understanding.
Theme:Sports Education

The Role of Sport in Building Resilience among Children and Youth Impacted by Natural Disasters: The 2013 Alberta, Canada Flood
Dr. Caroline McDonald-Harker, Associate Professor, Sociology & Anthropoloy, Mount Royal University, Calgary, Canada
Overview: Natural disasters are increasingly on the rise and have devastating social, economic, and health impacts on affected populations and communities. Children and youth are particularly impacted by disasters due to various physical, psychological, and social factors related to their developmental stage. Recently, sport has gained attention as an innovative and beneficial method of trauma relief for children and youth in the post-disaster context. In addition, participation in sport activities has the potential to provide children and youth with the opportunity to learn skills that promote resilience in the aftermath of a disaster. This paper discusses an interactive sport initiative involving 72 children that was developed and conducted as a pilot project in a community impacted by the 2013 flood in Alberta, Canada. Findings, based on qualitative data, reveal that the sport initiative provided an effective and valuable educational tool through which children were able to conceptualize, learn, and practice resilience building strategies in a post-disaster context. Utilizing a sport-based approach provided children with a safe, structured, and supportive learning environment; gave children the opportunity to discuss challenges and useful strategies; encouraged children to communicate and interact with their peers in a collaborative fashion; and facilitated guidance and mentorship of children by local sport coaches, thus contributing to disaster recovery.
Theme:Sport and Health

Sports Ecosystem and Its Management
Sebahattin Devecioglu, Assocaite Professor, Firat University,, Assocaite Professor, Elazig, Turkey
Yunus Emre Karakaya,

Overview: Today, sports are regarded as a significant goods and services sector with its qualifications such as protecting and improving individuals’ and societies’ health. Sports became a large industry thanks to its aspects of both producing service and producing and consuming goods. Sports Industry is a strategic propelling force of developing economically in global terms as well as developing in social terms. The general principles and rules of industries are also valid for the sports industry. Goods and services included in the ecosystem of sports industry are obliged to act together with human resources representing the field of sports, legal regulations, institutions, foundations and sports organization. Individuals, institutions and organizations related with sports should be structurally successful by taking their places in the existing sports industry ecosystem and creating the conditions of this system. The complex structure of the sports industry includes individuals, institutions and organizations such as the government, private sector, non-governmental organizations and in connections with these, athletes, teams, clubs, federations, activities, leagues, , events, cities, countries, locations, stadiums, halls, investors, entrepreneurs, media, marketing agencies etc. Achieving success and producing goods and services in sports industry is only possible by creating and managing a sports ecosystem, which is created by collecting various sub-systems together. In this study, the economic outlook of sports and its management strategies in the new economic system will be evaluated in a conceptual framework by using the descriptive method and sports ecosystem and its sub-systems will be modeled within a whole body.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People
13:45-14:00 Coffee Break
Room 1 Health and Wellness

Walking towards Better Health, One Step at a Time
Dr. Agnes Coutinho, -, -, University of Guelph-Humber, Toronto, United States
Overview: Health professionals are recommending exercise, often in the form of walking, to encourage the population to be physically active in order to offset the negative side effects of sedentary living. Despite the overwhelming evidence in support of exercise in reducing these negative effects, research suggests that those that are at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications, generally lead sedentary lives and report below average levels of physical activity. This paper discusses the recent trends and growing popularity of the activity of Nordic walking. Nordic walking has been shown to have many positive health benefits, compared to walking without poles. Adding poles increases exercise tolerance and personal exertion limits, which allows participants to walk further and longer. The aim is to examine the recent literature related to the effects of Nordic walking on prevention and management of chronic diseases, as well as to present resent case studies examining impact of Nordic walking programs in Canadian Aboriginal communities, within a workplace setting and as part of diabetes education sessions in a clinical setting. These examples provide evidence of increased participation and rate of adherence, ease of transition from clinic to community and overall improved quality of life directly related to participation in a Nordic walking program.
Theme:Sport and Health

Utilization of the Talk Test with Military Personnel
Lauren Holzberg,
Minhyun Kim,
Galen Morton, -, -, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States
Eric Vasconselles,

Overview: A person's physical fitness is an ever changing, growing, and advancing process. Today in America society, people are taught at an early age that they should be physically fit, active, and healthy; unfortunately, not all of us live up to that standard. In the closing decades of the 20th Century, American society, is being bombarded with commercials and medical adds discussing the ever increasing cases of childhood obesity, childhood diabetes, and high blood pressure in young adults (Gale, 2002). Today, most children are often fed candy and junk food while playing video games and watching television. "It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences" (Sahoo, et al. 2015). By the time children are at the age of adulthood, they are so far out of shape that it is next to impossible to get them in healthy condition. "Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age" (Sahoo, et al. 2015).
Theme:Sport and Health
Room 2 Shifting Paradigms

Sport and Masculinity: Using Experiential Narratives to Redefine Social Infrastructures and Social Cohesion
Scott A. Ellis, -, -, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Overview: Sports teams are prevailing, defining elements of masculinity at university but represent a conflicted social continuum between acceptance and rejection. Despite the inimitable social value placed on sports by college-age men, there is significant evidence that associated social value is vapid and toxic. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, I investigated how male students conceptualised their relational experiences between mental health and sports. Regardless of their sexual identity, all of the participants described their experiences of masculine representation in negative terms. This included students who were part of fraternities and those who represented an institutional sports team. It was notable that the mainstream media representation of sports was cited as discordant with their beliefs. Instead, they recognised homogenous hyper-mediatised mainstream sports representation as highly problematic. Participants had a significant degree of insight into social spheres including the ‘coming out’ of several high-profile gay sportsmen. University-based sports teams have begun to recognise the negative impact a closed, exclusive community or team of hyper-masculinised men can have on team performance and wider relationships. While aspects of masculinity such as aggressive behaviour are salient in competitive sports, sports-based masculinity itself is an unstable conceptualisation that varies across situations and social context. Despite San Francisco hosting the world’s first gay-inclusive games in 1989, the US is still considered to be a hostile environment for LGBT sportspeople, with highly visible, overt homophobia. A 2015 international study of homophobia in sport, Out On The Fields, ranked the US as the most homophobic developed nation for competitive sports.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People

Inclusive Masculinities, Homosexuality and Homophobia in German Professional Soccer
Dr. Matthias Kaelberer, Professor and Chair, Department of Political Science, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, United States
Overview: Inclusive Masculinities, Homosexuality and Homophobia in German Professional SoccerGerman society and even German soccer have become more acceptant of the idea of inclusive masculinities. Hyper-masculinity is no longer the only paradigm dominating discourses on soccer. Other forms of masculinities have become far more accepted in the German public and its soccer community. Nevertheless, two major aspects of homophobia remain part of the German soccer scene. First, homophobic epithets and chants remain very much part of the climate in the soccer stadiums. Second, there is the absence of openly homosexual top-level soccer players. So far, no active players in top division German soccer have come out as gay. What explains this contrast between the acceptance of inclusive masculinities and the continued homophobia of the game? This paper analyses discourses on masculinity, homosexuality and homophobia in German professional soccer to address this puzzle. I argue that the increasing commercialization of the game and the efforts of preserving the tradition of the game tend to pull in the same direction. Efforts of preserving the traditions of a “manly” game and the potential commercial “punishment” of openly gay players help in maintaining the dominance of traditional masculinity in the game.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Examining Motivational Climate in Hawai’i College Tennis Athletes
Rong Ma, -, -, University of Hawai'i, Manoa, United States
Overview: Motivation is one of the primary psychological skills in high performance tennis players; majority tennis players frequently confront losing in their athletic careers whether in the professional level or in the college level. Tennis players need motivation to be resilient, to train diligently and creatively after numerous frustrations or disappointments from the defeats. In addition, recent many sport psychological studies signify that competitive anxiety has a dreadful effect on tennis performance. It becomes clearer that many tennis players strive for enhancing their mental expertise to campaign the negative effect from competitive anxiety. International Tennis Federation indicates that various motivational perspectives will respectively influence the effect of competitive anxiety. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational climate and the competitive anxiety among current collegiate tennis athletes in Hawaiʻi. 32 male and 2 female tennis players from different universities in Hawaiʻi participated in this research study. The result from the study shows that task-oriented goal motivation can efficiently mitigate the symptom of competitive anxiety, but ego-oriented goal motivation deteriorates the negative effect of competitive anxiety. Three measure instruments would use in this study are: The Sport Motivation Scale, Task-oriented and Ego-oriented Questionnaires, Sport Competitive Anxiety Scale The method of this study is Cross-Sectional and I will employ T-test to exam the variances from different questionnaires.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
Room 3 Risk and Reward

Impact of CTE Research on Football in Society
Dr. Rocco Porreca, Lecturer in Sport Management, School of Marketing and Management, Coventry University, Brookline, United States
Michelle Brimecombe, Assistant Professor Sport Management , Roger A. Saunders School of Hospitality and Business Management , Newbury College , Brookline, MA, United States

Overview: The sport of football has been emerging in the United States for many years. Revenues in both, the National Football League, and within NCAA football, have grown exponentially due to the sport’s immense popularity. However, recent research regarding Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) has the sport on notice. Boston University’s CTE Center has been conducting research on the detrimental effects of playing the game of football. A 2017 study by Boston University stated 87% (177 out of 202) of former football players tested positive for CTE, and yet the NFL is projected to produce $14 billion in revenue this year. Furthermore, a decline in youth football participation has been slowly occurring since 2010. Does this decline have to do with further research being published on the negative effects of football on the human body? How will a decline in youth participation impact football as a product? This paper/presentation will begin to establish a correlation between CTE research and football participation, while also addressing the impact CTE research is having on society as a whole.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Metabolism behind the New England Patriot's Super Bowl Comeback Win: How Robert Alford's Interception Tipped the Balance
Galen Morton, -, -, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States
Nathan Cole, -, -, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, United States

Overview: Every play from scrimmage in a football game can be viewed as an exercise bout. There is a limit to the number of plays an individual can withstand in the time frame of a game without performance decrement. Atlanta’s defensive unit exceeded that maximum and because their recovery periods were insufficient, New England was able to overcome a 25-point deficit. We reviewed data bases from several post-game sources and we also collected data from media outlets such as newspapers and interviews of key game personnel. The main findings were that Atlanta’s defense became fatigued under New England’s ball control offensive strategy. From a metabolic perspective, their comeback was keyed by Alford’s interception return for a touchdown—it made the score 21-0, but it also kept Atlanta’s defense on the field for 26 consecutive plays and likely precluded adequate metabolic recovery opportunities. It is inadvisable to promote a game strategy to purposely fall behind by 25 points. However, if a team’s offensive plan includes a competent running game, a high percentage short-pass attack, that same team can overcome substantial deficits if they are patient because defensive metabolic fatigue can negatively influence performance.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Injury Risk among College Football Players
Arthur Owora, Assistant Professor, Public Health, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, United States
Overview: Football is a contact sport with an elevated incidence of high-impact collisions that can result in injuries with varying severity. However, literature on the etiologic risk factors of football-related injuries especially college football is limited. In this paper, we examine whether physiological and socio-behavioral factors deferentially predict injury risk among college football players using data from a Division I football team during the 2016/17 season.
Theme:Sport and Health
Room 4 Responding to Diversity

Building Intercultural Competency Skills within the Collegiate Student-Athlete through Short-term Study Abroad Programming
Arayael Brandner, Student, Sport, The George Washington University, Washington DC, United States
Overview: Higher education institutions are internationalizing their campuses to help create global citizens, but what about the college athletes? Will they get an opportunity to become global citizens if they are tied to their sport on campus. Find out why it is important to provide opportunities to this group of students and how to help them become culturally competent citizens. I focused on bridging the world of college athletics with the wonderful world of international education. Using international education scholars such as Dr. Darla Deardorff and Dr. Tony Ogden to help frame my research.
Theme:Sports Education

LGBT+ Inclusion in University-based Sport in the United Kingdom
Catherine Phipps, Senior Lecturer in Sport, Social Sciences, Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln, United Kingdom
Overview: Sport is argued to be one of the last spaces in Western societies where heterosexism and homophobia still exist prominently (Lenskyj, 2012). Yet, the sporting experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students at higher educational institutions in the UK are relatively underexplored. Sport is argued to be a significant part of university life; it is often where students try new sports for the first time, and is a major way in which students engage with their student unions. Furthermore, students who participate in university-based sport are likely to earn more and have fewer periods of unemployment (BUCS, 2013). Therefore, it is important that university-based sports are inclusive and accessible to all. Drawing on questionnaire, interview and focus group data with LGBT+ students and student union officers, as well as document analysis of student union policies, this research uses hegemony theory to argue there are still issues to be resolved to make university-based sport more inclusive for LGBT+ students. The findings also suggest many student unions’ policies can also be improved, especially in regards to transgender-inclusion in university-based sport.
Theme:Sports Education

The Right to Fight: The Status of Women in Boxing
Deirdre Nelson, PhD Student, Transitonal Justice Institute, Ulster University, Newtownabbey, County Antrim, United Kingdom
Overview: In 1987, Joyce Carol Oates, an author and boxing enthusiast declared that “raw aggression is thought to be the peculiar province of men, as nurturing is the peculiar province of women. The [woman] boxer violates this stereotype and cannot be taken seriously-she is parody, she is cartoon, she is monstrous.” Indeed, the presence of women in boxing has always invoked controversy. For most of the 20th century, women’s boxing was a prohibited activity until women took their battle to the courts, and argued for their right to fight. I was one of those women. In 1999, the Boxing Union of Ireland refused me the right to box professionally. Their decision had nothing to do with my ability or was due to any medical reason. It was based on paternalistic and gender based assumptions and I challenged their decision in an industrial tribunal. In 2001, I won my case and I felt vindicated but unfortunately change can be a slow and conflictual process. I mistakenly thought the opportunities would come rolling in, but nothing changed. The law had upheld my right to fight, but it was unable to deliver real substantive material change. Therefore my paper will examine the legal measures women boxers in the USA, UK and Ireland have used to advance their calls for equality and using my own personal experience, I will interrogate whether the law is capable of delivering meaningful change for women in boxing.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
15:15-15:25 Break
Room 1 Marketing and Commercialization

Outcome Uncertainty, the Superstar Effect, Talent and Live Attendance in Professional Boxing
David Chaplin,
Overview: The relationship between outcome uncertainty, the superstar effect, talent and live attendance at professional boxing matches is analyzed for forty-three contests. The implied probability the underdog will win (taken from bookmaker odds) is used to model outcome uncertainty, while the time-adjusted average number of Twitter Followers of the combatants in a given boxing match is employed as a proxy for the superstar effect and knockout percentage and possession of an Olympic medal in boxing serve as proxies for talent. Utilizing a log-log multivariate regression model (with live attendance as the dependent variable, explanatory variables of outcome uncertainty, the superstar effect, average knockout percentage and a dichotomous variable to capture if one or both combatants is an Olympic Medalist), we find only the superstar effect to have a statistically-significant impact on live attendance in professional boxing.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Sports Industry in Cuba: The Commercialization of Sporting Goods
Anelys Alberto, Reporter, Informative, Guerrillero newspaper
Overview: The present study aims to analyze the influence of the precariousness of the sports industry in Cuba in the decrease of the taste and culture of baseball on the Island. The problem has as its source issues of dissimilar origins but the shortcomings of sporting goods created in the national territory, from t-shirts to souvenirs, and mediocre marketing in the sphere emerged as one of the main causes in the results of a survey applied to young people between 19 and 35 years old from the capitals of seven Cuban provinces. In interviews with players and in two factories where the articles are made, the poor quality of the trousseau and the implements that the athletes use to go out to the diamond were evidenced. The industry works with a technology from the 60's of the last century, from Bulgaria, Germany and other countries of the socialist camp, plus Chinese machines of 2011. From the analysis of content (textual, visual and sound) of baseball publications and games transmissions of the National Series, the emptiness of articles, shows and advertising campaigns in terms of quality and idiosyncrasy was evident. There is also a marked shortage of items such as posters of athletes and teams, caps, shirts, cards, pennants of players, key chains, ashtrays, towels, glasses and others. Among the respondents a preference for football was found, while the Cuban industry in the current conditions can not compete with the media chains and the traffic of information about foreign players.
Theme:Sports Management & Commercialization

Olympic Dreams or Broken Promises: Evaluation of the XXII Olympic Winter Games’ Vision and Impact on Infrastructure, Environment, Athletic Venues, and Tourism
Nataliya Bredikhina, Graduate Research Assistant, The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport, University of Central Florida
Overview: As often mentioned in the academic literature and in the media, the XXII Olympic Winter Games in Sochi became a record-breaking event in terms of investments made, amount of media attention drawn, and scope of impact produced on the host region. The current paper aims to investigate the disparity between promises made in regards to the potential impact of the Sochi Olympics and presented in the 2014 IOC Evaluation Commission Report versus the actual effects of the Games, evaluated based on the information drawn from official documentation of environmental and human rights organizations, news reports, and various media sources. The analysis focuses on four major dimensions of the Games’ impact: infrastructure, environment, athletic venues, and tourism. The work shows that fulfillment of promises and benefits of the Sochi Games for the Russian population have been very questionable. The event has been associated with numerous acts of violation of environmental laws and local residents’ human rights, corruption, and tremendous economic losses. However, the 2014 Winter Olympics’ gigantic costs and negative impact on the host region is not a unique trend. Similar tendencies have been associated with most mega-events staged in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Theme:2018 Special Focus - Sports Impacts: Reshaping Cities, Environments, People
Room 2 Training and Performance

Dance and Sport: Fundamental Movement Skills
Dr. Margo Apostolos, -, -, University of South California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
Overview: Dance provides a cross training activity for athletes in both team and individual sports to include the environments of land, air, and water. The dance experience presents a training method of both fun and fitness. This paper reveals specific examples, sport by sport, and discusses the benefits for athletes. A key point is a focus on injury prevention and pre-habilitation through an individualized approach to movement.
Theme:Sport and Health

Sports and Performance Vision: An Optometrists Role in Enhancement of Athletic Performance
Dr Amar Sayani,
Dr Jasleen Jhajj,

Overview: Vision is integral to an athlete's success. Performance metrics such as batting average, fielding percentage, save/shot ratio, pass completion percentage, free throw percentage, field goal percentage, and others are improved by enhancing visual functioning. Optometric sports vision optimizes vision as it relates to athletic performance. This is achieved through vision training, and the application of spectacles or goggles, tints, contact lenses and/or refractive surgery. Management and prevention of sports related ocular injuries are also covered. Vision is commonly defined as the smallest line read on an acuity chart (visual acuity). In reality, visual acuity is one of many skills that determine the efficiency of the visual system. For example, dynamic visual acuity is the ability to resolve and discriminate objects in motion (e.g. a ball). Other visual skills impacting athletic ability include contrast sensitivity, depth perception at distance, peripheral awareness, ability to fixate and track moving objects, eye-hand coordination, reaction time, near-far quickness, dominance (eye, hand and foot), and higher order visual processing. Great binocular vision is necessary to make accurate spatial judgements. Visual sequela are a leading area of impairment in sports related concussions. Optometric vision training/rehabilitation normalizes and enhances visual skills leading to improved visual performance.
Theme:Sport and Health

Work-based Learning in Sport Education: A Case Study from Scottish Higher Education
Laura Graham, -, -, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, United Kingdom
Overview: The inclusion of work-based learning in programmes of Higher Education plays a crucial role in preparing students for employment and in contextualising knowledge and understanding. This is particularly relevant in sport professions, where the tendency is still for practitioners to rely on experience as a source of learning rather than formal, structured opportunities. The BSc Sport Coaching and BSc Sport Development programmes at The University of the West of Scotland have long promoted work placements as an integral part of student development. For the past three years however, a formal service level agreement with the local leisure trust has facilitated the incorporation of workplace training courses into placement modules, structured and progressive placement opportunities from first to third year, and an integrated approach to monitoring student development in the workplace. Influenced by the lead author's doctoral research on the development of coaching philosophies, the academic delivery of these modules has been adapted to involve: structured, vertical integration between year groups to encourage the development of communities of practice; engagement with Career Services including completion of and reflection upon online video interview simulators; and a strong focus on preparing students for employment with applied, reflexive, professional skills and attributes. The proposed presentation details the journey towards the development of these modules including the main challenges and triumphs, student perceptions of the concepts, and future developments. It is hoped that this information will be valuable for colleagues engaged in the push towards embedding work-based learning across the H.E. sector.
Theme:Sports Education
Room 3 Identity and Agency

Conformity to Masculine Norms and Sexual Relationships among US College Athletes
Lorin Mordecai, Graduate Research Assistant, School of Social Work, University of Connecticut, Storrs, United States
Overview: With heightened attention on sexual assault in college sports, this study seeks to understand the impact of conformity to masculine norms and sexual relationships among college athletes. Using a secondary data-analysis, 795 undergraduate students in the northeast region of the United States completed an anonymous survey that included items from the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI) scale. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the impact of dominance, violence, and success and winning on feelings on sex and relationships while controlling for ethnicity, race, gender, year in school, and type of sport. Preliminary results indicate that college athletes with greater masculine attitudes such as dominance and violence have less appreciation for sex and relationships. Meanwhile college athletes with higher attitudes on success and winning had greater appreciation for sex and relationships. Males were also more likely to have higher acceptance of dominance, violence, and success and winning than females. More research needs to be conducted on the attitudes and behaviors of college athletes as it relates to masculine traits and the possibility of sexual violence. These findings also point to the need for increased training on healthy masculinity and sexual assault prevention in college sports.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities

Strong is the New Skinny: The Biopolitical Logic(s) of Female Muscularity, Health, and Becoming
Annie Yaniga, Teaching Associate, Humanities, The University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States
Overview: This paper outlines the final results of a two-year ethnographic study of an American CrossFit gym and community. CrossFit is a world-wide sport and fitness brand, with over 13,000 franchised fitness affiliates around the world and an annual open sporting competition: The CrossFit Games. While CrossFit is beginning to become the subject of some ethnographic research, there has yet to be published a long-term in-depth ethnographic study of a CrossFit community and its participants. This study, which includes two years of participant observation, 40 interviews, and a body-idealization survey, reveals three major findings of great significance affecting theories and practices of gender, embodiment, discourses of health, agency, self-care, and community identity, all within the ideological framework of the Biopolitics of late capitalism. Key findings include the following: Female muscularity is greatly encouraged and valorized, within new limits, CrossFit discourses of health align with theories of Healthism and neoliberal values of individual responsibility, and the primary motivation of individual CrossFit participants is the pursuit of meaning-making and purpose through self-realization, a pursuit that is accelerated through the community experience.
Theme:Sporting Cultures and Identities
16:40-17:10 Conference Closing and Award Ceremony