In recent years a number of organizations have applied classic human resource management processes to volunteers and the applicability of these in this specific context has been questioned (Alfes, Antunes and Shantz, 2017; Cuskelly et al., 2006). A number of authors have expressed the view that volunteer workforces require volunteer (as opposed to) human resource management. There are three key theories that describe the process through which individuals are integrated into work places to become effective insiders (all applied in human rather than volunteer resource management contexts). These are socialization, institutionalization and assimilation (Aybet, 2000). These theories have been tested in contexts in which employees are paid and they provide the theoretical framework for this project. The different stage models from institutionalisation, OS and assimilation can be aligned and the below figure comes out of the comparison. Within the stage models, a pre-entry phase highlights the recruitment & selection phase, as well as the time running up to the first day of work. The entry phase refers to the first day(s) on the job, whilst the learning phase recognises that new recruits need to learn skills. The embedding stage recognises the personal and emotional attachment to the organisation that the new recruits develop over time, which is not recognised in institutionalisation. The final stage of “(effective) insider” is the final objective for this process.