Representation of Social Struggles in Korean and Philippine ELT Textbooks

The present study investigates the representations of social struggles depicted in middle school English textbooks published in Korea and the Philippines. The data consists of 200 reading selections from 18 volumes of Korean textbooks and 108 reading selections from 3 volumes of Philippine textbooks. A total of 39 instances of social struggles were identified from the data analysis, and the following categories emerged from careful reviews of those instances: social struggles involving social groups, which are further divided into subcategories such as gender, generation, socioeconomic class, social rank, race, and the colonizer/colonized; and, social struggles involving resources, which are subdivided into education, basic necessity, and technology. Findings show that social struggles associated with gender, colonization, education, and technology are common among Philippine and Korean ELT textbooks. The data analysis also reveals that Philippine textbooks present a wider array and more in-depth contextualization of social struggles while representational issues on stereotyping, desensitization, and juxtaposition of elements are found in Korean textbooks. Related to the research findings, some educational implications are provided particularly from the perspective of critical pedagogy.

Textbook, Analysis, Critical, Pedagogy, Multiculturalism, Multicultural, Learning, Social, Justice

Learner Diversity and Identities

Paper Presentation in a Themed Session

  • Mae Karr Ruth Ballena
    • Research and Teaching Assistant to Asst. Professor Ji-yun Kim, Ph.D., School of English Language and Culture, Catholic University of Korea, South Korea South Korea