Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

By: Samuel Moskowitz  

We shall discuss promising research in breast cancer therapy and diagnostic tests. Gene mutations increase with age. Alterations can transform a benign tumor into a cancerous lesion. Treatment for postmenopausal women is simple mastectomy. Ductal carcinoma in situ is a common form. Cancerous tumors produce markers in blood and urine at high rate. Recently introduced is the experimental biological therapy Adopted Immunotherapy. Tumor cells undergo genetic changes that make their surface antigens less conspicuous to killer T cells. Nevertheless, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are found within tumors. These cytotoxic cells recognize the modified antigen. They are then sequestered, grown in the laboratory into vast numbers, and infused back into the patient. A checkpoint inhibitor prevents these T cells from attaching to the antigen on normal cells. Hormones estrogen and progesterone receptors help detect breast cancer. There is an affinity for attachment of hormones to a tumor and then act as growth factors. Production and adherence of hormones consequently are curtailed. Expressions of several genes can yield the expectation of recurrence somewhere in the body. High probability suggests ten instead of five year duration of hormone therapy. Another test examines under fluorescent lighting if chromosomes of tumors were damaged by the malignancy. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are found within tumors. These cytotoxic cells recognize modified antigens. They are grown in the laboratory into large numbers, and infused back into the patient. One test yields the probability of recurrence and implies duration of hormone therapy. Another determines if any damage to tumor chromosomes occurred.

Medical Perspectives on Aging, Health, Wellness
Paper Presentation in a Themed Session

Prof. Samuel Moskowitz

Research Professor and Emeritus Professor of Applied Mathematics

Prof. Moskowitz is currently Research Professor and Emeritus Professor of Applied Mathematics at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. His professional interest is Mathematical Modeling in Healthcare. Recent publications include: Recent Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography (South Korea), Wireless Route Planner for a Programmable Wheelchair, Retinal Curvature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Controlled Inquiry Rates of Clinical Interviews in Telehomecare (South Korea), and Guidelines of Telehomecare for the Underserved, and The Hausdorff Measure of Progress Made by the Homeless and Mentally Ill. Prof. Moskowitz was Head of the Israeli delegation to ISO/TC 215, which prepares standards in Health Informatics, and contributed to Working Group Standards Association 1073, in the field of Medical Devices. He collaborated with Hadassah Medical School healthcare providers. Joint collaboration with cardiologists, ophthalmologists, and cardio-thoracic surgeons led to several technological developments. These included an air-cushioned eye bandage (patent 3952735), a look-up table of refractive errors used in ophthalmic surgery, measures of astigmatism in an improved keratometer, a rule-of-thumb for matching arterial grafts, dimensional criteria for shunt implantation in the treatment of hydrocephalus, finite element software for the simulation of heart performance in artery stenosis, and requirements for central heart valve prosthesis.