Human migration is among the most pressing and contentious global concerns that focus on identity and belonging. Who has a right to movement and under what conditions? How are boundaries determined? Who sets policies, enforces policy and who is subsequently impacted by policies that may leave migrants vulnerable to circumstances they do not fully understand in their desperation for safety, freedom, and opportunity. In 2017 an estimated 258 million people were moving within countries, between countries, and across continents (United Nations). The migration starting with the 2010 Arab Spring increased global awareness of migration as large number of people sought passage into Europe through Mediterranean Sea passages. While many countries were initially open to accepting migrants fleeing for specific purposes, others fostered and promoted xenophobic responses based on identity within a context of country nationalism. Such responses are not new and rooted in discriminatory practices recognized globally. This study examines the politics of identity and migration in the responses to Africans seeking to migrate through Spain and Mexican/Latin American migrants to the United States. Similarities and differences help to illustrate responses to migrants globally. A further examination of increased family and underage migrants additionally impact policy responses. Deeper examination of identity and its impact on policy development is encouraged.
United States, Spain, Identity, Migration, Policy
Identity and Belonging
Paper Presentation in a Themed Session
Language Educator, Douglas County, United States