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Jun 6, 2018
08:00-09:00 Conference Registration Desk Open
09:00-09:30 Conference Opening—Homer Stavely, Common Ground Research Networks, Champaign, USA
09:30-10:05 Plenary Session—Yolanda C. Padilla, Professor, University of Texas at Austin, and Director, Center for Diversity and Social and Economic Justice, Austin, USA

"How to Change the World: A Critical Pedagogy for Diversity and Social Justice"
10:05-10:35 Garden Conversation and Coffee Break
10:35-11:20 Talking Circles

Plenary Room - 2018 Special Focus: Without Walls—Affinity in Diversity
Room 1 - Identity and Belonging
Room 2 - Education and Learning in a World of Differences
Room 3 - Organizational Diversity
Room 4 - Community Diversity and Governance
11:20-11:25 Transition Break
Room 1 Naming, Belonging, Reference
What's in a Name: Use of the Word "Queer" as Self-identification

Robert Alberts, 
Dr. Diane Zosky, Director, School of Social Work, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois, United States

Overview: This paper introduces research that explored terms that college-aged, self-identified LGBTQ people use for self and other reference, especially use of the word queer. The language and terms one uses for self-identification can be instrumental in the development and integration of one’s sense of self. This is particularly true regarding gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. For LGBT people, influential aspects of identity construction are the terms used for identification and their corresponding social value. Terms denoting positive and negative social value have changed over time and how LGBT people respond to a term can be different from generation to generation. This seems to be particularly marked with use of the term “queer.” Use of the word queer has evolved over time and across contexts. Some still bristle when hearing the term and associate it with hate and derision. Others may embrace it as a radical, political contestation of resistance to heteronormativity. The results from this study provides empirical evidence that college-aged people have reclaimed the word queer as acceptable for gender or sexual orientation identification, although it is not the most frequent term used for their own self-identification.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Anansi the Spider: How Storytelling Helped Preserve Identity and Culture within Caribbean Slave Communities

Prof Nadia Karimah Richards, Professor, School of Social and Community Services, George Brown College

Overview: When Africans were enslaved and brutally forced off the shores of the African Continent they left with no worldly possessions. They did, however, carry their customs, folklore, and traditions to the "New World," all of which would serve as tools for preservation and identity. Europeans used a multitude of strategies to erase the enslaved Africans’ identity, histories, and, indeed, humanity. To ensure, in other words, the cultural genocide of those communities they were enslaving. It is within this context that we can begin to understand the vital role orature assumed in slave societies. Orature was among the few African customs that Europeans could not completely suppress. The persistent place of oral storytelling in slave communities thus suggests the practice assumed great importance in preserving a community’s identity. This paper thus seeks to better understand the relationship between orature and cultural preservation among Caribbean slave communities. In so doing, I will focus on Anansi stories in particular. How did orature help to preserve identity and culture within Caribbean slave communities? Are there features of Anansi stories that help explain their vital role in securing a thread between enslaved Caribbean communities and their home, Africa?
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Political Rhetoric in India: A Case Study of Shiv Sena in Maharashtra

Neeraj Shetye, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh , India

Overview: Political rhetoric in a modern democracy has several complexities including a huge number of speakers, the quantity of information, diverse viewpoints, number of candidates, and the impact of the digital age. Indian politics has always witnessed claims of identity; first in the formation of Pakistan as a separate nation and then internal linguistic division of states. Politics in India since the seventies have been visibly dominated by uses of rhetorical language and number of slogans. This idea of how language can steer an individual to establish or adopt a certain viewpoint has not been a focus of study in the Indian discourse. There are in-depth studies by western thinkers on European or American political rhetoric unlike their Asian counterparts such as China, India or any of the Pacific nations. Is there something that makes political rhetoric in India unique than the West? How do we see connections between language and emotions in this scenario? While attempting to answer these questions, this project aims to study the growth of a political organisation in Mumbai and its suburbs: Shivsena. One primary intention behind this research is to connect and analyse the vast dispersed literature that is available and contribute to a field that has not been adequately analysed in academic discourse.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
Room 2 Laws, Regimes, Regulatory Frameworks
Origins of Contemporary California Attitudes toward Race and Social Ostracism

Dr. Robert Louis Terrell, Santa Cruz, United States

Overview: This paper investigates a variety of historical accounts and documents to highlight the biased origins of California’s social and political evolution. This method reveals many of the primary reasons why California maintains political, cultural, and economic systems that bestow sexism, imprisonment, poverty, and widespread homelessness upon the state’s most unfortunate residents. Little public attention is devoted to the historical origins of the state’s most pressing social problems, nor to the numerous times during its history that California’s leaders have conspired with racist forces intent on keeping the state as white as possible for as long as possible. The net result is that California is the scene of many of the most retrograde aspects of U.S. culture, most notably a system of caste and racial oppression that exerts devastating, negative consequences on many of its poorest citizens. The paper exposes those origins, and discusses the ways in which they influence contemporary life in the so-called Golden State.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
Bylaws Effects: Fostering Diversity Efforts across Departments

Prof. Abalo Adewui, -, Department of Teacher Education and Professional Development, Central Michigan University

Overview: Central Michigan University (CMU) houses about 20,000 students predominantly white. However, CMU prides itself for championing diversity education and inclusion initiatives through various programs on the main campus and abroad through study abroad programs. There are several organizational units specialized in monitoring diversity education activities on campus. One of the units, where faculty is broadly represented is the Multicultural and Diversity Education Council (MDEC). It is an academic Senate Committee chaired with promoting diversity, multiculturalism, and equity in the curriculum. However, after years of efforts unresponsive to Central Michigan University's diversity, inclusion, and student recruitment and retention priorities, departmental bylaws are now being considered for the acknowledgment of faculty efforts in diversity education. While we are monitoring the effect of the bylaws, a teaching diversity self assessment instrument is developed to encourage faculty throughout departments to monitor their individual commitment to diversity education efforts. Participants will use insights from the CMU model and teach diversity self assessment instrument at their own institutions.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Reconstructing Identity: The 504 Sit-in Protests

Scott Abernathy, Associate Professor, Political Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

Overview: Stories, and the intentional use of narratives to shape political outcomes, are increasingly being seen as an important topic in the study of politics and public policy. This project focuses on the narratives constructed and conveyed by Americans with disabilities in concert with what are called the "504 sit-in protests" of 1977, through which Americans with disabilities sought to pressure the federal government into fully enacting important provisions of a federal civil rights law. The project uses quantitative and quantitative analysis of oral and written histories of disability rights advocates involved in the protests, subsequent testimonies in congressional committee hearings, as well as media coverage in order to add to our understanding of the power of intentional narrative in shaping public opinion and political discourse.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Room 3 Representation in the Classroom
Representing Race and Gender: Performing and Teaching Intersectionality in Australia

Dr. Jane Park, Sydney, -, Australia
Dr. Sara Tomkins,

Overview: “Representing Race and Gender” is the only course in the undergraduate curriculum of the Department of Gender and Cultural Studies at the University of Sydney that foregrounds race. It shows how race intersects with gender, class, and sexuality and gives students theoretical tools to critique the reproduction of racism in dominant culture. This paper provides a critical reflection of our embodied experiences teaching this course as women of different racial, cultural, and generational backgrounds (Anglo-Australian millennial and Korean-American GenXer). We draw on feminist and cultural studies pedagogies as well as models of cultural competence to re-examine our memories of events, interactions, and emotions in the three years we have taught the course. We illuminate the strategic ways we have performed our own intersectional identities in lecture and tutorial spaces, in particular considering the different ways that students of various backgrounds have responded to the same material when it is taught by a white or non-white lecturer. Through this shared reflection, we hope to demonstrate the continued importance of acknowledging and using one’s own embodied experience to teach material on diversity such as race, gender and class in the university, especially in Australia where such courses remain rare.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Organizational Changes for Diversity in STEM: Professional Women’s Strategies for STEM Fields’ Cultural Changes in the United States and South Korea

Yun Kyung Cho, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

Overview: Although women and minority representation in higher education has been consistently increasing over the last decades, their proportion has remained low in specific fields and professional workplaces. While the earlier “leaky pipeline” literature largely focused on individual women and minority students’ science competence and demographic characteristics, more recent studies illustrate that they initially have STEM interests and occupational aspirations but gradually become discouraged or unwelcome through interactions in their fields. This study examines how professional socialization facilitates mutual influences between the dearth of women in STEM and gendered STEM culture. By conducting individual in-depth interviews with female graduate students and professors in three STEM fields in the US and South Korea, this study seeks the organizational change mechanism by which professional women first socialize into STEM cultures for their individual success in their fields and then gradually modify the existing cultures towards more diverse and inclusive STEM cultures. By illustrating individual women’s agency and strategies in research practices and interactions with male colleagues, this study suggests a minority-based model for bottom-up organizational change mechanisms. It complements the current understanding of institution-level diversity issues that are based on majority-based model for reproduction mechanisms of existing social inequalities.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through 3D Pedagogy Workshops that Decolonise, Democratize and Diversify the Curriculum

Dr. Deborah Gabriel, Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom

Overview: Equality, diversity and inclusion in educational practice are increasingly important dimensions of undergraduate education. In the UK in 2012, the National Union of Students called for a ‘liberated’ curriculum that tackles structural inequalities in society. Since then, due to government policy changes in higher education, funding is driven by student outcomes, measured through a Teaching Excellence Framework, under the auspices of an Office for Students that has a strong remit for social mobility and improvement in the retention, progress and success of students of colour and non-traditional backgrounds. To meet student demands and government priorities, higher education institutions must ensure that educational practitioners have the requisite skills to deliver culturally democratic teaching and create inclusive environments. Enhancing educational practice through workshops focused on reflective practice and critical pedagogy deliver benefits both to institutions and students. Critical reflective practice combines critical inquiry and self-reflection with critical analysis to create awareness of how cultural practices and educational policy shape teaching practice. Cultural competence enables educators to deliver cross-cultural and culturally responsive teaching. Diversifying the curriculum can help democratise the environment to enhance student experience and outcomes. This paper is based on the project Enhancing Educational Practice Through 3D Pedagogy Workshops. It discusses the preliminary findings of survey and focus group data collected following pilot workshops at two UK universities aimed at: advancing educational practice by enhancing the cultural competence of practitioners; equipping educators with the knowledge and skills to decolonise, diversify and democratise the curriculum and enhance practice by promoting reflexive teaching.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 4 Whose Campus?
Sexual Violence in Canadian Universities

Shirin Abdmolaei, -, Faculty of Education, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada

Overview: The oppression of sexual violence in Canada is deeply interconnected with the violence of racism, sexism, and socioeconomic inequalities, which are reinforced and sustained through social institutions and structures. This paper discusses how social categories not only make women of colour more susceptible to sexual violence on campus, but it seeks to demonstrate how violence is perpetuated against them in the aftermath of their experiences. The choice to speak or to remain silent about their experiences tells us much about the institutional and structural forms of violence that universities, the criminal justice system, as well as liberal discourses of Canadian multiculturalism, perpetuate against women of colour. Through in-depth interviews with women of colour who have experienced sexual violence on campus, this paper highlights the complexities of sexual violence by focusing on social categories and institutional and structural violence in an attempt to challenge static and one-dimensional approaches to sexual violence against women.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Campus Diversity, Title IX, and Evidentiary Standards

Scott Henderson, Professor, Education Department, Furman University, Greenville, SC, United States

Overview: This paper focuses on a contentious element in Title IX enforcement--the adoption by colleges/universities of a "preponderance of evidence" standard (versus a "reasonable doubt" standard) when adjudicating sexual misconduct cases. The educational experience on college campuses is enriched by a diverse faculty, staff, and student body. Such diversity enhances academic/co-curricular performance and fosters a celebration of difference. To promote diversity, institutions of higher learning must insure the safety and well-being of all members of the campus community. One way to achieve this goal is by enforcing Title IX of the U.S. Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX requires that educational institutions maintain an environment free from sexual discrimination. In its broadest formulation, this type of discrimination includes sexual misconduct related to gender, gender identity/expression, and sexual orientation. This paper includes a review and critical analysis of nascent case law, emergent policies, and current litigation pertaining to Title IX evidentiary standards. The aforementioned review and analysis indicate that the preponderance of evidence standard should be kept. In order to safeguard efforts to promote diversity of gender, gender identity/expression, and sexual orientation, institutions of higher learning will need to refute objections to the preponderance of evidence standard.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Senior Executive Leadership Succession Planning and Management: With Implications for Underrepresented Minorities

Dr. LeKeisha Jackson,

Overview: Guided by the research questions, this study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed methods research design to examine senior executive leadership succession planning at four-year, predominately white, doctoral universities in the state of Georgia. Utilizing the Representative Bureaucracy theory and the Mateso SPM conceptual model,this study employed a pragmatic epistemology coupled with the critical inquiry to collect and analyze data. This study explores succession planning and management of senior executive leadership by examining the SPM practices and processes surrounding the nomination of successors, with implications for diversifying senior executive leadership. Included in this study is an extensive literature review including the following: Leadership crisis in higher education, historical perspectives, diversity in higher education, diversity management, succession planning, succession planning and management, ending with succession planning and management theoretical consideration. This research study explored the effectiveness of SPM practices at the institutional and divisional levels at four subject universities. Associated factors and perceptions were examined to identify patterns that facilitate an inclusive leadership environment. The study employed an explanatory mixed methods research design as suggested by Creswell (2015). Data findings are summarized in the following categories: Unit Driven Informal Practices (SPM Practices), Professional Development (leadership commitment), Decentralized organization (organizational culture), and Diversity management and various factors.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
12:40-13:45 Lunch
Room 1 Media Flows
Impact of Social Networks on the Coming-out Process for LGB College Students

Dr. Robin Walters-Powell, Chair, Social Work Program, University of Findlay

Overview: As individuals move through life, there are developed and identified areas referred to as social networks that provide support and assistance. It is through these social networks that identity formation occurs, these broad categories are highly influential in defining self-concept, which is developed through an affiliation (whether it be positive or negative) with the following groups: family, peers, education, spirituality, and the broader community/society. For those individuals that identify as Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual (LGB) there are challenges that exist in their development that are unique to them as compared to what the general population experiences. LGB individuals are an extremely vulnerable subset of the population, particularly given the degree of homophobia in our society. Adolescents who are struggling with issues of sexual orientation face incredible challenges and lack many of the fundamental support systems available to their heterosexual peers (Gonsiorek, 1988). All of these identified social networks of this developmental period lend themselves to the overall identity formation of each adolescent. A positive identity must integrate one’s sexual identity into it (Baker, 2002). For LGB individuals who are struggling to identify, define, and make sense of feelings of attraction toward members of the same sex, adolescence may be a particularly challenging time in their lives. This qualitative study consisted of eighteen participants that discussed their coming-out process in the context of supportive and non-supportive social networks. It explored the difference between the high school and college environments, identifying risk and protective factors that impacted this important milestone in their sexual identity development. Several themes were identified around the process of coming-out; these were fear, shift of social networks (high school to college), and search for community and acceptance. Throughout these identified areas there was further acknowledgement of factors within the social networks that impacted the coming-out process, that are explored further in the following narrative. Identifying non-judgmental environments where both high school and college students can explore the possible intersection and acceptance between their religion/spirituality and their sexuality would minimize many of the issues that surround the fear that is associated with the coming-out process and lead to a more affirming, supportive environment for the LGB individual.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Invisible Women: A Case Study of Posters in the Workplace

Madison Winter Kurchik,

Overview: This paper provides a case study analysis of gendered content featured in a sample of posters present in a technology startup work environment. More specifically, this study has two major purposes: to establish the nomological network in which a causal relationship between posters in the workplace and the experience of female employees in that space might exist and to provide an initial case study of a sample of posters as a first step towards future, more positivist, research. The case study is situated in a theoretical framework that combines the philosophies of feminist and organizational studies. The case study sample is six posters collected from a technology startup company. These posters were examined for a number of gendered features including language use, colour, character depiction, and roles and dress of characters. The analysis showed that the content of the posters was significantly dominated by masculine linguistic trends and male representations. The case study analysis illustrates a method by which workplace posters can be scrutinized for implicit gender bias. In addition, although it is a single example, the case study suggests that masculine language and images might contribute to the exclusion of women in a technology startup work environment. The primary suggestion to be garnered from this case study analysis is to include diverse consultation in the process of of poster design for a work environment.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
A View into a Different World: The "World Journal" as a Case Study to Explore the Impact of American Chinese Newspapers on Ethnic Identity

Yaching Hung, -, Department of Taiwanese Literature, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, -, Taiwan

Overview: The core question that this study addresses is what kind of role the "World Journal," a newspaper which has a huge impact on Chinese people in America, plays in the process of the construction of Chinese ethnic identity. This research explores three issues. Is the "World Journal," the largest Chinese newspaper or is it the largest newspaper in Chinese? What does the term “Chinese” mean in a newspaper published in Chinese by a Taiwanese newspaper office in the United States, and how does it relate to the Sinophone? What are the reasons for its existence and what are its impacts? News is generated through the selective processes of values, interests, and recognizability, but it is also a product of the cultural air. The cultural values it reveals symbolize the ideology of the society. Can a Chinese media organ maintain multidirectional critiques and a critical attitude toward China, Taiwan, and the US at the same time? If the Chinese diaspora is used as an organizing concept, then it is possible to propose new organizing concepts by uncovering deviations from this concept. Newspapers have certain intriguing functions that set them apart from literary works. Chinese people from different regions can overcome the limitations of time and space to read symbols and signs with metaphorical cultural connotations, which through this process of transmission and accumulation enter people’s real world. Can this kind of behavior break the original group barriers, build a new sense of belonging, and thus form a new Sinophone?
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Gender Diversity in Tech Industries

Rafiullah Qaderi,

Overview: Can greater equality improve tech industries? Inequality between men and women has existed and it still exists in almost all aspects of living. In tech industries, this gap is significant. Women have had a noticeable influence in technology since the beginning, yet their numbers and recognition are small globally.This study presents gender inequality levels in tech companies and organizations and reviews the impact of women in technology. The method used in this research study is quantitative. Data is secondary and has been gathered from varied sources such as government of Afghanistan publications, Human Rights International Research Journal, etc. Trends observed during the past decade are discussed in the paper.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Room 2 Material and Immaterial Boarders
Gender and Migration: Immigrant Women’s Struggles with Canada’s Invisible Borders

Dr. Mirna E. Carranza, Associate Professor, School of Social Work, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Overview: Women’s international migration has been on the rise over decades. This paper introduces the findings of a qualitative study, with sixty-one participants, exploring the intersection of women’s immigration, integration, and mental health in Canada. In partnership with various NGOs and grass root organizations, Community-Based Participatory Research informed the study design. Coloniality of power and borderland theories informed the data analysis. Coloniality of power is understood as a system of contemporary relations that continue to be shaped by power structures rooted in ancient regimes such as colonialism. Grounded Theory analysis indicates, not only, the gendered aspect of immigration, but also signals to the imaginary colonial matrix of race, as an organizing principle established during colonial times, significantly impacting the participants’ integration. Participants reported that they encounter multiple borders in their integration paths, which change according to the institutions and the actors involved at the time; some are more evident than others; others are full with tension and nuances. Collectively, these individual acts encompass a systematic exclusionary border preventing their full economic and social integration. Coming to terms with it, their ongoing acts of resistance in maneuvering and standing up to such borders impact their overall mental health and wellbeing.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Transformative Bodies and Intersectional Resistance: Without and within These Walls

Qianru Li, Athens, Georgia, United States

Overview: In September 2017, the dance company Lenora Lee Dance presented the immersive multimedia dance performance "Within These Walls" at the immigration station on Angel Island, San Francisco, infamous for detaining and interrogating millions of Chinese immigrants during the enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882). "Within These Walls," as a site-specific performance, examines this period of U.S. history. Because nearly half of this dance took place outside in front of the immigration station building, the landscape of racially diverse contemporary San Francisco became part of the set, which allowed the performance to present race as the intersection point of past and present given that the performance presents the stories of “Paper Sons and Daughters” from China, who endured discrimination because of their race. In presenting these stories against the chosen backdrop, "Within These Walls" invites further discussions of race as a factor in immigration. Angel Island was the border between the illegal Chinese immigrants and the U.S., and those from countries other than China who are also categorized as illegal immigrants nowadays share similar struggles that those Chinese immigrants endured in the past. Thus, "Within These Walls" underscores the continuing existence of the boundaries between marginalized groups and the center of society, boundaries that both derive from and perpetuate social injustice, exclusion, hostility, and displacement.
Theme:Identity and Belonging, Community Diversity and Governance
Postcolonial Analysis of Cultural Competency and Cultural Safety in Study Abroad Programs among Undergraduate Students in International Placements

Dr. Louise Racine, Professor, College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Dr. Susan Fowler-Kerry, 
Dr. Linda Wason-Ellam,

Overview: This study provides results of a study aimed at assessing cultural competence and cultural safety in study abroad programs. A postcolonial theoretical approach is used to inform the study. Postcolonialism is located within a historical realist paradigm that acknowledges that knowledge is historically and socially constructed. Using an exploratory qualitative approach, data were collected to answer the following research questions: How do international educational experiences abroad facilitate or hinder the development of cultural competency and cultural safety? and How do international experiences deconstruct or maintain a priori racial and ethnic stereotypes? The sample includes fifteen to twenty students who participated in an international educational experiences. The type of experiences abroad may vary with disciplines but they all include exposure to cultural diversity and an adaptation to cultural differences. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Individual and focus group interviews were audio-taped. Informed consent was sought prior to data collection. Thematic analysis represents a "method for identifying, analyzing, and reporting (themes) within data" (p. 79). Constant comparison was used to analyze the transcripts of individual interviews and focus groups. Using constant comparison, similarities, and differences between and across all individual interviews were conducted. This research has educational and societal significance. For students to become global citizens, it is necessary that issue of power relations within education abroad settings be understood, otherwise educators run the risk of training (educating) culturally incompetent and unsafe students. Culturally unsafe behaviors maintain colonial stereotypes and affect health and social inequities. Results indicate that cultural competency and safety are sustainable and transferable skills of global citizenship.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Understanding the Multicultural Ethos of Indian Society through Use of Colors

Bhavya Gupta, -, -, India

Overview: As graphic designers, one of the most crucial challenges is to work with color palettes. Color forms an integral part of one’s work. We play with an idea that essentially encourages us to carry out this research. India is home to a diverse group of ethnicities that are complexly woven into each other. This symbolism of color controls every aspect of Indian life be it religion, politics, language, etc. There are some colors that are highly preferred as a part of day-to-day chores in one part of the country but are perceived differently elsewhere. Is it possible to devise a palette of a particular region that can determine choices? What are the factors that one needs to consider while defining these choices? We decided to work on a software that would ease this process. Our first phase covered North India which houses 307 million people (about 23% of the total population) living in seven different states. We envisaged variations of color choices based on anthropological factors among these states. Some prominent factors included rituals, cuisines, music, dance, demographic, and geographical aspects. We intended to do this with a two-step methodology, including literature review and fieldwork. The fieldwork component studies day-to-day lifestyle and during festivities. The results indicate that there are fundamental color choices linked with ethnic choices in almost all of the states except Delhi. As the national capital region, Delhi is a hub of cosmopolitan culture. It has become a central space of confluence that houses these multitudes of diversities. Our project addresses this concept of diversity in a cosmopolitan space as it introduces a palette based on fundamental ethnic choices. This palette contributes to the development of a software that makes it easier for users to navigate color preferences and serves the diverse design needs of individuals and organizations alike. It can ease the process for designing branding campaigns and contribute to the fields of color theory and culture studies.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Room 4 Ensuring Participation
Preliminary Findings on the Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes Survey: Relationships between Culture, Identity, and Economic Values

Dr. Carla Houkamau, Associate Professor, Department of Management and International Business, The University of Auckland, Auckland, -, New Zealand

Overview: Māori are indigenous to New Zeeland which was colonised by the British from the early 1800s. In the 2013 census, one in seven people usually living in New Zealand in 2013 belonged to the Māori ethnic group. This paper reports selected preliminary findings of the Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes Study (MIFAS). In the first week of October 2017, the MIFAS survey was sent out to 100,000 people registered as having Māori descent on the New Zealand electoral roll. This MIFAS is the largest survey of Māori financial attitudes ever conducted and the first of its kind in New Zealand. The meta-objective of the Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes study is to explore how personal characteristics (e.g. Māori identity, age, personality, gender) and characteristics within the social, economic and cultural environment, influence economic behaviour, values and aspirations among Māori. This paper will highlight selected initial findings from the first wave of data collection. Of particular interest will be the extent which customary Māori cultural values (particularly collectivism and interdependence) continue to influence Māori career priorities and the extent to which Māori educational, work, and career aspirations extend beyond personal success to encompass communal values and group orientation.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
Eligibility Trends in Special Education: Is There a Function of Race and Socio-economic Status?

Dr. George W. Hebert, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Rehabilitation and Counseling, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States

Overview: Disproportionality, refers to both the over- or under-representation of a given population in a larger population category. It is often defined by racial and ethnic backgrounds, but has also been defined in terms of socioeconomic status, national origin, English proficiency, gender, and sexual orientation. In the United States, these factors have been shown to significantly influence a child's probability of being misidentified, misclassified, or inappropriately placed in certain special education categories. This paper will analyze national educational records and assess the perceived equity progress made over the previous ten years with regard to race and socioeconomic status. Attention will be paid specifically to categories that are regarded as high incident and low incident disabilities. Additionally, the relevant professional literature will be reviewed to validate the identified data trends. Participants will be asked to facilitate discussion regarding inequity in general education, poverty, special education processes, issues of behavior management, and test bias as it relates to these trends.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Presidential Commission on Human Dignity and Integrity

Dr. Jonas Ohrberg,

Overview: The Presidential Commission on Human Dignity and Integrity is an attempt to foster and define a national dialogue to address the unresolved historical and current issues related to race. The principles of the suggested Commission are rooted in Dr. Martin Luther King Jr’s speech, The American Dream, which Dr. King gave on July 4, 1965, at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, which emphasized the dignity and worth of the human personality and human progress in America. The Vision of The Presidential Commission on Human Dignity and Integrity is to ensure that the dignity and integrity of all peoples, cultures, races and native communities in the United States are restored, respected, and protected, and to ensure the unity of America as one people and one nation. The Mission: The Mission of The Presidential Commission on Human Dignity and Integrity is to lay the foundation for, inspire, initiate, and maintain a comprehensive individual state and national dialogue, and through inclusive collaborative efforts develop, support and promote national initiatives to ensure that the dignity and integrity of all peoples, cultures, races and native communities in the United States are restored, respected, and protected, and promote America as one people and one nation.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
Creating a Pathway of Connections: Interracial Mentoring through Instrumental versus Relational Perspectives

Dr. Nakisha Castillo, 
Dr. Kat Ringenbach,

Overview: Mentoring new faculty of color in the academic environment is imperative as they may experience the feelings of vulnerability, stress, and powerlessness. In order to manage these feeling and assist with acclimation to the institution a mentoring partnership must be developed. That partnership may start with a task, that develops into a caring relationship where mentors build trust through honesty, have a willingness to learn about self and others, and be willing to share power and privilege. The goal is to build pathways for a faculty to become a valued member of the academic community without sacrificing self-identity. For the mentor, open dialog and a willingness to confront one’s own biases is critical in building trust. For the mentee, a willingness to be vulnerable, ask for help, and look for performance feedback is critical in connecting to the mentor and the institution. A positive mentoring relationship diminishes isolation, provides a sounding board for ideas, and helps with uncertainties. As the relationship matures, the relationship then transforms into a bi-directional relationship, where mentors are provided with new insights that enrich their personal growth. This paper will describe a case study of a cross-race mentoring relationship.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 3 Workshops
Responding to a Discriminatory Incident

Lee Mun Wah, Executive Director, -, StirFry Seminars & Consulting

Overview: Often, discriminatory incidents and lawsuits emerge from environments where diversity issues are seldom discussed and where cultural differences are “celebrated” but not practiced or represented. During this workshop, we will explore how to create a culturally competent and sensitive community that is able to embrace and respond to diversity. Through the use of role plays, personal stories, films, listening exercises, and "mindfully responding" techniques, participants will: Understand how one’s personal and community history affect’s one’s self-esteem and sense of safety; Learn ways to respond with honesty and compassion when a conflict occurs that involves a diversity issue; Create a sense of community and understanding amongst a diverse culture of people; Learn how to ask meaningful and intimate questions of individuals from diverse cultures; Understand how differences (i.e. racial, gender) can affect relationships, communications, and behaviors; Discover how to observe and make use of the intent and impact of all of our communications; and Learn the art of listening and responding cross-culturally.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
An Integrated Approach to Intercultural Learning and Praxis in a World of Interconnected Economies, Cultures, and Identities: Leverage Diverse Ways of Thinking, Communicating, and Working

Oleh Kaarmik, Principal, Global Operations, Impact Factors LLC

Overview: In a world of interconnected economies, cultures, and identities, global citizenship is strategically embedded in mission and vision statements as our academic and business environments become increasingly complex. Simply learning about other cultures (having a cross-cultural approach) has not produced lasting positive impact academic institutions and businesses have been seeking. To discover creative and effective solutions to current and emerging challenges what is needed is an authentic engagement into a mutually grounded intercultural (not cross-cultural) learning. Being mindful about various cultural codes and being able to purposefully engage into a dialogue with intercultural (moving away from cross-cultural) mindset is the only path to success. This workshop is a practical and flexible tool which educates and equips individuals from different backgrounds not only to be respectful of cultural differences but to successfully leverage diverse ways of thinking, communicating and working. WORKSHOP CONTENT: The workshop is based on the Inter-Cultural Competence Model and is designed to introduce participants to a comprehensively designed learning series comprised of four components: awareness, attitude, knowledge, and skills. This series takes participants on an interactive inter-cultural journey where participants are actively involved in experiential learning while sharing professional insights, personal observations (from the presenter and the entire group), as well as hands-on exercises which invite the participants to make sense out of the unfamiliar without losing their cultural “self.”
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
15:25-15:40 Coffee Break
Room 1 Building a Workplace
The Impact of Associate Resource Groups on Employee Engagement and Workplace Inclusion

Ada T. Cenkci, Assistant Professor, Political Science, Criminal Justice & Organizational Leadership, Northern Kentucky University
 Jeffrey Zimmerman, Assistant Professor & Director of Organizational Leadership, -, Northern Kentucky University
 Tuba Bircan,

Overview: Associate Resource Groups (ARGs), also known as “Employee Resource Groups” or “Affinity Groups,” are voluntary, company-sponsored groups organized around a common interest or identity (Welbourne, Rolf, and Schlachter, 2015). There is significant lack of research on ARGs, including ARGs’ influence on individual employee outcomes. Therefore, this study explores the influence of ARGs on employee engagement and workplace inclusion. For this purpose, a qualitative study in a major US retailer was conducted. Seventeen one-on-one interviews with ARG members and executives of the organization were administered in 2017. This paper discusses how the retailer employs ten types of ARGs at its corporate headquarters, including: Asian, African-American, the Alliance (LGBT and Allies), Hispanic and Latinos, Women’s Leadership, Veterans, and Parents ARGs. ARGs assist the organization significantly in a number of ways such as with product development (e.g. culture-specific products), policy development (e.g. “health and wellness” rooms that also serve as unisex restrooms at its new stores), and involvement in the community (e.g. charity fundraisers for cancer research). ARGs also serve as an internal community for employees, while providing the foundation to hire, retain, and develop diverse employees through, among other things: the strong social support network, mentoring, networking with peers, and exposure to executive leadership. In summary, this paper highlights how a major US retailer utilizes ARGs to influence employee engagement and workplace inclusion.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Gender Differences in Perceptions of Entrepreneurial Opportunities

Dr. Helen MacLennan, 
Dr. Lorrie McGovern, Associate Dean, Donald R. Tapia School of Business, Saint Leo University, Tampa, FL, United States
 Angela Garrett, 
 Redwan Samra, 
 Aisha Rasberry,

Overview: Because small business generates wealth, creates jobs, and subsequently stimulates the overall economy, bringing gender parity to entrepreneurship can have beneficial and far-reaching implications. This research uses existing data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and utilizes an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to examine gender differences in the perception of gender equity in the perception of entrepreneurship opportunities.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
Labor Market Matching Processes of Immigrants in Canada: Results from Case Studies in the Health and Information Technology Sector

Silvia Annen,

Overview: Canadian society is characterized by a plurality of immigrants and, the Canadian migration policy is strongly geared to economic criteria and educational attainment. This project aims to gain knowledge, through a mixed method approach, into how immigrants to Canada use their foreign qualifications and competences in their current employment. This paper focuses on the results of twelve qualitative case studies conducted in Canadian enterprises to identify approaches and methods, which employers use to make decisions regarding foreign qualification and competence recognition. The fundamentals and reference points of these decisions, the considered information as well as the differing approaches and methods used are investigated. Regarding the individuals, the analysis focuses on how immigrants present and document their foreign qualifications and competences to employers. The selection and proposal of further qualification measures by employers and education providers to immigrants and their underlying principles are investigated. The case studies consider the health and information technology sectors, which vary in their degree of regulation and occupational requirements. The project refers to the theoretical concepts of signaling and screening and aim to make an empirical contribution regarding the relevance of information in the recognition of foreign qualifications and competences.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Room 2 Logics of Ability
Acceptance as a Negative: A Conversation of Ableism and Identity within Disability Rhetoric

D'arcee Neal, -, -, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States

Overview: Twenty-seven years ago the American with Disabilities Act became the law, cementing a foundational promise to people with disabilities nationwide. What occurred however, was quite the opposite. As a unified society, it is generally understood that against traditional ideologies, racism, as a commonly negative signifier would be met with rightful indignation and linguistic disdain for its use of lazy, culturally loaded verbiage rooted in openly discriminatory practice. But in contrast, as a more pervasively subtle idiom, ableism or the idea of overvaluing the material world and circumstances that benefit people without disabilities solely for the perception of normality as a collective, is seen as inherently trivial; a kind of accusatorial leverage held by the pseudo-privileged, and the neoliberal creation of a psychologically sensitive public. However, it is this very rhetoric that lays the foundational discord inherent in the language of disability and the public’s relation to it. Today, as disabled people emerge from the shadows demanding autonomy and independence, an equally assertive demand for linguistic accountability comes with it. My paper confronts modern ableism as it exists within subconscious rhetorical devices, comparing societal views against those of two prominent ideals of disabled rhetoric: person-first language versus identity-first language. By examining both the historical and common views of these ideas, my argument in favor of a demand for the examination of modern ableist rhetoric, comes at a critical moment in American conversations on progress.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Without Walls—Affinity in Diversity
The Impact of Mixed Ability Sailing on Executives’ Attitudes and Workplace Behavior: Can Contact Change Attitudes?

Grace Brown, Qualitative Research Specialist, -, Hult International Business School

Overview: This research focuses on building positive attitudes towards physical disability in the workplace by assessing the impact of the intervention on able-bodied executives’ attitudes. We tested intervention impact with an overall hypothesis that “working as an equal alongside people with differences, in an 'out of comfort zone' environment, will bring about positive changes in attitudes towards disability and potentially other kinds of diversity encountered in the workplace.” In addition, we investigate whether intervention impact differed between those with and without previous contact with disability. Attitudes towards disability are likely to improve through more frequent interactions between disabled people and non-disabled people. This assertion is held up by numerous studies which have supported the "contact hypothesis" (Pettigrew 2000). This states that stigma may be reduced by equal status contact between majority and minority groups in the pursuit of common goals (Allport 1954). The intervention provides ideal conditions for the contact hypothesis to take place. Quantitative results from a questionnaire and implicit association test show a statistically significant increase in positive attitudes towards disability post-intervention. Qualitative data gained from interviews and focus groups provide an understanding of how this change in attitude takes place, through themes of trust, permission, and a focus on individual's strengths rather than weaknesses. Overall this research contributes to an understanding of how organizations can increase inclusive practice on the basis of fostering positive attitudes between individuals and groups characterized by social difference.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Opportunity versus Capacity for Career Development amongst Individuals with Autism

Francesca Dansereau, -, -, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
Dr. Tara Flanagan,

Overview: In the early 1990s there was an increase of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One response was to facilitate early intervention and support with the hopes of increasing positive post-high school outcomes and vocational opportunities (VanBergeik, Klin, and Volkmar, 2008). However, very little research has focused on vocational outcomes, especially regarding the environmental influences on these. The individual characteristics related to negative outcomes have been extensively researched (e.g., neurology, processing speed, executive functioning, language and communication, learning disabilities, and psychiatric comorbidities) though the environmental and societal contributors have been largely ignored. This proposed research will contribute to the field by addressing the notions of self-determination and vocational maturity, by furthering the concept initiated by Super in 1957 that a person’s diversified opportunities support career development. This mixed method study will focus on the career trajectory of individuals with ASD without intellectual disability by looking at their vocational maturity during late adolescence and young adulthood. We will use a Self-Determination framework to explore these concepts. By using the AIR self-determination questionnaire and case studies of vocational trajectories, we plan to evaluate the amount of opportunities available to individuals with ASD and to explore the availability of supports and resources that promote their vocational readiness and career development. The potential implications are to highlight the supports and resources available to other individuals with ASD and to encourage professionals in the field to further their knowledge regarding career development.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Room 3 Framing Meaning Making
W.E.B. Du Bois’ Sociology: The Restive Relationship between W.E. B. DuBois, Traditional White Institutions, and Diversity and Inclusiveness

Dr. Anne Onyekwuluje, Professor, Department of Sociology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, United States

Overview: This paper explores the transformation of W.E.B. Du Bois’ early sociological thinking on diversity and inclusiveness in response to the now apparent transition to a developmental diversity and inclusive approach (D&I) in traditional white institutions (TWI). The paper in a skeletal way identifies some of the tensions that exist for TWI’s when dealing with institutional diversity and inclusiveness, the methodological problems, and with the evaluation of evidence when strategic planning around D&I becomes a necessary mission and vision goal. This paper uses Du Bois’ own words to show how early sociology was too caught upon “position” and not upon “connection” to diversity and inclusiveness. And, how Du Bois’ work can change the way we think about diversity and inclusion. Too, this paper will reveal how my sociology department is at work solving the problem of diversity and inclusiveness. Traditional white institutions rebuked the cause and call for diversity and inclusiveness in their white institutions. We have Du Bois’ attention. We can use his sociology and become the academic leader in developing a cultural space for diversity and inclusiveness to propagate.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Ethical Universalism

Dr. Indira Y. Junghare, -, -, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

Overview: Natural disasters, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and droughts have unleashed havoc and suffering in many recent tragic events. The nature seems to show its power in various forms. One can ask if these events have any connection with our modern, scientific, industrial, materialistic worldview and our way of life? We are facing problems related to diverse cultures which cannot be understood in isolation for they are interconnected and interdependent; for example, we face global poverty, pollution, extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale, ethnic and tribal violence, competition for resources, socio-political-economic power’s dominance and threats of wars and destruction. Ultimately, we have to see these problems as different faces of one single reality—leading to total annihilation of life. Descartes and Newton’s mechanistic worldview, and the scientific revolution, which provided the foundation for the development of Western culture and modernity, are inadequate to face the reality. This paper analyzes the natural disasters and humanistic problems as different aspects of the same reality and proposes a system of universal ethics for the sustenance of all-inclusive existence and harmony between diverse systems of life. The approach to the analysis of suffering is ecological and draws upon Indian philosophies in theory and practice.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Professor Gunapala Malalasekera as the Catalyst for Global Buddhist Cultural Renaissance

Mrs. Nayomi D. L. De Silva, Media and Public Relation Coordinator, Sri Lanka, Malalasekera Foundation, Kadawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka
 Randika Jayatissa, 
 Manoj Divituragama,

Overview: Diverse situations make great heroes and memorable identities. Buddhism has a long and interesting history. After 2500 years of Buddhist era, in light of various influences, but without significant cultural exchanges, Buddhists around the world find ourselves situated in Mahayana and Theravada branches without much interaction. In this realm, Professor Malalasekera, a man of many facets, a notable philanthropist scholar in Sri Lanka and an internationally reputed icon on Buddhism, is distinctive. This paper takes the initiative to review his noble work towards sustaining Buddhism and serving many people by uniting all Buddhists and bringing them to a common platform to exchange their ideas, experiences, and practices in order to achieve eternal happiness and peace. According to the secondary data published in journals, books, paper articles, interviews and reliable websites, his writings such as Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Editor-in-Chief); first material to emerge in western language on Buddhist tradition, Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names; exploration of the Pāli words, Pāli Literature of Ceylon; Buddha and his teachings; Buddhism and the race question, present universal messages to all human beings. As the founding president of the World Fellowship of Buddhists and All Ceylon Buddhist congress, Professor Malalasekera initiated ‘Vesak’; an International celebration and optional holiday for Buddhists. These actions and his identity as the catalyst of global Buddhist cultural renaissance are considered in this paper.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Room 4 Linguistic Diversity
Summoning the Cultural Heritage and Power of Mexican Parents’ Voices via Code Switching

Gilbert Duenas, Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum Instruction and Technology, Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, -, United States

Overview: Over a one-year period on Friday evenings, a household served as the venue for a bilingual researcher to meet with parents of three Mexican families to offer English language instruction and explore the effect of four strategies to summon the power of their voices in their native language and the English language. Over multiple sessions, the strategies intentionally tapped the richness of their cultural knowledge and life experiences. The chosen methods encompassed napkin notes at the kitchen table, graphic organizer focused on a central theme, mix of auditory messages sent via text message before the session followed by casual conversations and writings, and the researcher’s modeling of paragraph writing in the Spanish language focused on a central concept followed by the parents’ own practice writings. What started as household visits to offer instruction in the English language subtly evolved into rich conversations about family memories—both here and in their native land, cultural traditions, and sentiments about their lives in a new country. This study demonstrated the significance for educators to forge parent-teacher connections as a pathway for valuing the parents’ native language and emergent acquisition of the English language—as resources for empowering the voices of culturally diverse families.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Up, Over, Around, and Through: Using Movement to Navigate Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in the Classroom

Jamie A. Johnson, Assistant Professor, -, Utah Valley University, -, Utah, United States

Overview: The rapid shift in the global landscape is resulting in an influx of non-native speakers into colleges and universities. Content area experts are faced with opportunities and challenges to meet the demands of the culturally and linguistically diverse students. Somatic practice provides a unique approach to assisting students’ language acquisition alongside the development of their social, emotional, and cognitive intelligence. In this study, the qualitative analysis of interviews with Chinese English Language Learner (ELLs) revealed the challenges and benefits ELLs experience in a dance technique classroom. Participants highlighted teaching strategies they found assistive to their development. Interviewees suggestions were further explored through in-practice sessions, and resulted in the creation of learner-centered classroom activities. This presentation introduces a movement approach to embedding language objectives into coursework, highlights teacher-facilitated interactions, and stresses conscientious modeling to nurture inclusive learning environments.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Linguistic and Literary Accessibility at the Edmond and Lily Safra Hospital for Children: Assessment of the Situation and Challenges for Improvement

Vardit Mileguir, Pediatric Nurse Training Head, -, Sheba Medical Center

Overview: Over the past decade there has been an increase in the number of Palestinian patients hospitalized in Israeli hospitals. Statistics conducted by the Ministry of Medical Tourism show about sixty Palestinian children. During the course of the treatment, difficulties arise due to language barriers, culture, values, and customs. This situation makes patients less likely to report symptoms, to get proper explanation, and then to follow instructions as required by the caregivers. Thus there are situations of errors in diagnosis and difficulty in receiving and transmitting information, all of which harm the quality of treatment. The Director General of the Ministry of Health Circular refers to the cultural and linguistic adaptation and accessibility issue (Ministry of Health, 2013) This study examines the degree of organizational cultural competence from the perspective of the staff in pediatric departments and at the same time the patients cultural anamnesis. In addition, it is necessary to understand the factors that explain the degree of their literacy and open mindedness - their ability to obtain and digest medical information, to understand it, to derive meaning from these factors, and to evaluate the patient's experience. The study is prospective. The study will include 150 parents of Palestinian children treated at Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital and 150 medical and nursing staff members.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
16:55-18:25 Welcome Reception

Jun 7, 2018
08:15-09:00 Conference Registration Desk Open
09:00-09:20 Daily Update
09:20-10:15 Presentation on the African American Cultural and Heritage Facility (AACHF)—T.J. Owens, Director, African American Cultural and Heritage Facility, Austin, USA
10:15-10:25 Coffee Break
10:25-12:00 Diversity Panel

Panelists from the Division of Diversity and Community Engagement will discuss diversity at the University of Texas at Austin in the context of the 4 goals in the division's strategic plan: campus culture, community engagement, educational pipeline, and research. The panelists are:

Liz Elsen, Director, Gender and Sexuality Center
Speaking on Campus Culture

Brianna Davis, Coordinator for Community-based Learning, Longhorn Center for Community Engagement
Speaking on Community Engagement

Dr. Rodolfo Jimenez, Director, STEM Initiatives, Longhorn Center for Academic Excellence
Speaking on Educational Pipeline

Dr. Emmet Campos, Director, Project MALES and Texas Education Consortium for Male Students of Color
Speaking on Research

Virginia Cumberbatch, Director, Community Engagement Center
12:00-13:00 Lunch
13:00-14:00 Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library Self-Guided Tour
14:00-16:00 Diversity Units at the University of Texas at Austin Self-Guided Tour

In partnership with the Division of Diversity and Community Engagement at the University of Texas at Austin, conference delegates will have the opportunity to tour the various diversity-related units on campus and speak to representatives about the work they do for both the university and the local community.

Participating Units include:
Longhorn Center for Academic Excellence
Services for Students with Disabilities
Multicultural Engagement Center
Gender and Sexuality Center

Jun 8, 2018
08:15-09:00 Conference Registration Desk Open
09:00-09:15 Daily Update
09:15-09:50 Plenary Session—Gloria González-López, Professor, Sociology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA

"On Becoming Teachable: Lessons on Teaching Sexual Violence, Race, and Cultural Diversity"
09:50-10:20 Garden Conversation and Coffee Break
Room 4 Emancipatory Education
Creating a Culture of Critical Consciousness to Develop Intercultural Competence in Educators

Dr. Tonya Huber, Professor, College of Education, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas, United States
 Lorena P. Cestou, -, -, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX, United States
 Elizabeth R. Sanmiguel, -, -, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX, United States
 Mayra L. Hernandez, -, -, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX, United States

Overview: While the challenges to be globally competent bombard the field of education, what meaningful conceptual frameworks exist for considering (and assessing) university students as globally-minded citizens developing intercultural competence as educators? Freire’s (1989) Critical Consciousness as Teacher Education Framework for Global Citizenship including artifact clips and caption analyses (Huber, 2002, 2011) provide curricular models and transformative strategies for creating a culture of critical consciousness in education by Elizabeth R. Sanmiguel. Clips and captions equip the teacher candidates with participatory research techniques (Freire 1970) to facilitate a greater depth of understanding by requiring candidates to reflect and act in ways to transform their lives and eventually the lives of their students in empowering ways. Explication of clips and captions analysis informs this paper. NAFSA’s (2016) Cultural Awareness Profiles by Mayra L. Hernandez--Profiles of students, particularly student research fellows, engaged in critical reflection in teacher education courses. The myCAP© Cultural Awareness Profile is a series of four surveys that self-assess and provide feedback in the areas that pertain to cultural and global awareness, specifically, understanding of cultural and global contexts, integration of global and cultural perspectives in the curriculum, and responsiveness to the influence of culture on teaching and learning.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Inclusive Teaching Strategies in Ghana and the United States: Teaching ALL of our Children

Dr. Sidonia Alenuma-Nimoh, Associate Professor, Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, Minnesota, United States

Overview: This paper explores inclusive teaching strategies and best practices for teaching all children irrespective of their background (gender, race, class, language, religion, sexual orientation, or ability). This quest in the field of education has a long history and there are a plethora of ideas on how we can “teach all our children” especially here in the United States. In this paper, I explore how the quest manifests itself in Ghana. Content of the study is based on field research conducted in Ghana in the academic year 2013/2014. African teachers have always taught students of different ability levels, class, and cultural differences in the same setting without having to analyze: am I using differentiation? They just do it and know that it works. Or do they? What can be learned from teachers who are seemingly oblivious of such strategies as culturally responsive, multicultural, and differentiation instruction? What strides are being made and how can an African country such as Ghana learn from educators in the United States and their preoccupation to be intentional about including everyone in their instruction and vice versa? Rather than viewing the inclusive instructions in isolation, is there any merit in hybridism? Does naming and acknowledging the teaching practice lead to best practices? What happens when inclusive strategies are blended in a subconscious manner, not named, but just done? Could there be lessons learned from the margins, from the practices of Ghanaian educators?
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Voices from the Diverse Classroom: Teachers’ Perspectives on Factors That Influence Their Orientation to Teaching in Public School Classrooms

Alexandra Parise,

Overview: Pre-service teachers are exposed to philosophical, psychological, social, multicultural, and economic factors that influence their instructional decisions. To what extent are multicultural and diversity pedagogy promoted? During their professional education preparation in many teacher preparation programs in the country, pre-service teachers are exposed to philosophical, psychological, social, multicultural, and economic factors. It is assumed in good faith that these factors will influence their instructional decisions when they are in the classroom. Likewise, there is a push for professional educators to promote multicultural awareness by honoring and valuing individual identity, cultural differences, and supporting the strength of all individuals in the classroom to ensure that instruction reflects the realities of global diversity. What factors really influence individual teachers’ instructional decisions in diverse classrooms? To what extent are multicultural and diversity pedagogy are promoted? About twenty teachers provided answers to these questions during interviews. The analysis of the responses yielded compelling information and also raised thought-provoking questions. This paper is a report of the responses through the teachers’ own voices.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Transformational School Leadership: Critical Approaches

Dolapo Adeniji-Neill, Associate Professor/Chair, Curriculum and Instruction, Adelphi University

Overview: There are issues that every school faces on a day-to-day basis, which could be handled by the school and school staff. Then there are critical Issues not all schools face but that affect students, faculty, administrators and staff deeply ( Proulx and Schulten 2018). Twenty-two percent of the children in the U.S. live at or below poverty level. Students living at or below poverty level tend to have the highest dropout rates. Studies show that students who do not get enough food or sleep are less likely to perform at their full academic potential. Schools know these truths first-hand, and despite efforts to provide students with basic essentials, teachers, administrators, and other policy makers know there is no equitable distribution of resources. Compounding these issues are poor environmental conditions of the schools in low-income neighborhoods, which often results in further undermining the potential of students in these districts. Our research emphasizes triumphs amid the aforementioned adversities. It features the stories of nine transformative leaders who created positive change in failing schools.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 5 New Frontiers
Selecting the Nation: Immigrant Integration Policy Proposals in Québec, 1976-2014

Alex B. Rivard,

Overview: While research exists that observes the nexus of social policy and nationalism (Béland and Lecours 2008), immigration in liberal states (Freeman 1995; Good 2009; Joppke 2005; Koopmans et al. 2005), and immigration in stateless nations (Barker 2015; Bilodeau and Turgeon 2015; Kymlicka 2001), there is a lacuna in the literature on nationalism regarding how immigrants integrate into substate nations. Where there is an explicit recognition that party ideology plays an important role in policy outputs (Castles and McKinlay 1979; Hartmann 2015; Hinnfors et al. 2012), this paper argues that this does not appear to be the case in Quebec. With the Liberal Party of Quebec (PLQ) and Parti Québécois (PQ) offering different political ideologies (liberalism and social-democracy; federalism and sovereignty), this paper demonstrates that these parties largely propose converging immigration policies. Yet the main differences lie in how each party contextualizes their policies. Overall, the proposals are void of nativism and are, generally, open and plural in nature. While nationalism does play a role in their policy proposals, it appears that electoral competition is more important in the proposal of similar immigration policies than is nationalism thus brokerage politics has been applied to account for said convergence.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Interpretations of Gender Bias in the Technology Sector: Does Bias Impact Organizational Attractiveness?

Dr. Kellye Jones,

Overview: Technology firms such as Apple, Facebook, Google, and Twitter have released diversity reports. Examination of the data in many of these reports indicates that women occupy a limited presence within these firms. Moreover, women's representation plummets as senior positions are examined. Insights and commentary have been offered by senior executives of these firms as well as representatives from traditional media outlets in attempts to explain this occurrence. Scant attention, however, has been placed on commentary in the blogosphere. Moreover, few studies examine the attitudes of future technology employees following the release of diversity reports. This study examines blogged comments associated with the lack of diversity within the technology sector. Thematic analysis is used to explore the nature of posted comments. Reactions associated with the reports may influence the employment appeal of technology firms. To investigate this dynamic, the organizational attractiveness attitudes of students majoring in Computer Science, Information Technology and Informatics, and Management Information Systems will also be assessed. Using the MANOVA technique, differences in attitudes based on academic discipline and biological sex will be explored.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
“We’re not prepared to lower our standards”: A Case Study on Organizational Diversity Discourses

Caidor Pascale, Lecturer, Communication, University of Montreal

Overview: In this article, we explore how, as part of the implementation of an ethnocultural diversity initiative, members of a project team come to negotiate new standards and practices for managing diversity. Through the analysis of two meetings of a diversity project team in a large Canadian parapublic organization, we examine communication practices by which members discuss the standards to be preferred in the implementation of a new welcoming structure and the determination of hiring rules for the new diversity workers. Above all, we show, based on this analysis, how the voices and figures that populate their interactions are engaged in the implementation of the initiative and the mobilization of standards relevant to the implementation of the project.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
What Do Teachers in Turkey Think about Student Diversity?

Seyithan Demirdag, Assistant Professor, Education Administration, Bulent Ecevit University

Overview: Countries have exhibited holistic approaches to ethnic and cultural differences in their communities and schools. It is starting to become a fact that some countries consider diversity as a threat and try to adopt ways in order to assimilate people who belong to such diversity. On the other hand, some other countries adopt a framework of tolerance and equality for individuals making up such diversity. This qualitative research was conducted in different public schools in Turkey. The participants of the study included 144 teachers in pre-schools, elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools. The duration of the study was approximately six months. Participants of the study were asked about the situations in their classrooms which were the most challenging and the easiest for them to overcome in relation to student diversity. In addition, teachers were asked about their expectations from the families of diverse student populations. Lastly, teachers answered questions about their opinions in terms of having different cultural and ethnic backgrounds than their students. The data were analyzed using content analysis approach.
Theme:2018 Special Focus: Without Walls—Affinity in Diversity
Room 2 Workshops
Be/longing: Contemplative and Performance Practices in Academia

Dr. Laura Biagi, Multicultural Faculty, Theatre Studies, DePaul University, Chicago, IL, United States

Overview: This workshop offers an introduction on the use of contemplative and performance practices to create awareness of the vital role that diversity plays in U.S. academic communities. Professor Biagi will lead participants through a series of exercises to address social conflicts coming from internal bias. Our assumptions, thought of as the “normal” way to look at things, can often result in prejudice and discrimination and, despite our best intentions, create microaggressions. When working with younger generations, such as students, faculty and staff may underestimate the impact that their authority has on their overall success. It is of paramount importance that academic leaders learn how to listen, control, and express their emotions, and choose words and body language that are inclusive. Working with simple theatrical exercises, Dr. Biagi will discuss the concept of the “performance of identity,” and illuminate the fact that respect of diversity is first to be cultivated within. Be/longing is, at its heart, a “longing to be” seen, heard, and appreciated.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Moving Forward: Forming Alliances for Diversity and Inclusion

Noro Andriantiana Andriamanalina, Director of Academic and Professional Development, The Graduate School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

Overview: This workshop will interest educators at the undergraduate and graduate levels and has three objectives: provide background and rationale for the University of Minnesota Graduate School initiatives, offer perspectives on collaborating with students, faculty, and staff on diversifying higher education, and highlight a curriculum model that has been used by the Graduate School Diversity Office to train faculty and staff on creating an inclusive environment for all students. Participants will engage in key components of the curriculum through small group discussions that address defining academic culture in a predominantly White institution, identifying purpose and objectives for recruiting diverse students, staff, and faculty, and addressing biases. Small group discussions will be an opportunity to explore how expectations are formed in academic institutions and how differences in cultural values impact student experiences. Participants will reflect on their institution’s commitment to diversifying higher education and methods to create an inclusive environment to support diverse students. Critical to the conversations will be recognizing the intersectionality of student identities and how faculty and staff contribute to student experiences that are either affirming or negating. As all humans have biases, implicit and explicit, this workshop will focus on reducing bias by focusing on the experience of the individual and developing a dialogue to bridge differences. Participants will be equipped with content and strategies to lead discussions, at their institutions, on issues addressed through the workshop. This workshop will be applicable to all levels of educators and practitioners interested in increasing diversity among students, staff and faculty.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Room 3 Workshops
Leveraging Engagement through Diversity

Dr. Gordon R. Haley Gordon Haley,

Overview: Research has shown having people who are highly talented and who are committed and engaged are critical to the success of organizations. When these individuals are truly engaged, they will work harder to achieve positive organizational outcomes. Using Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s, ”Tale of O” and Jane Elliott’s “Eye of the Storm" as catalysts for discussion, this will be an interactive, experiential session, exploring the physical, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of engagement. In this workshop participants will have the opportunity to discuss, debate, and brainstorm universally strategies for using diversity to human engagement that can be customized to meet the unique needs of their organizations through leveraging diversity.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
From Small Seeds: Fairness Project, Spreading Good Practice in Preparing Diverse Student Cohorts for Discriminatory Graduate Professions

Tina McKee, 
 Rachel Nir,

Overview: This interactive workshop will show how teaching materials designed for a student cohort at a Northern English university have been picked up by seven other English universities for use in their classrooms. What started as an inclusive remedy enabling students from lower socio-economic or BAME backgrounds to better access graduate careers at the University of Central Lancashire, has turned into a "pass-it-on" message benefiting a much wider group of students at a range of institutions. The authors of this social justice project will talk about both the teaching and learning materials and how they have disseminated this good practice successfully to date. The workshop will include a chance to participate in some of the interactive classroom tasks together with an evaluation of the results of student surveys on the benefits of taking part in the Fairness Project seminars.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 1 Colloquium
Critical Moments in a Faith-based University: Standing on a Fractured Precipice

Dr. Anna Berardi, Professor, School of Education, George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon, United States
Dr. Steve Bearden, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Counseling, George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon, United States
Dr. Beronica Salazar, 
Dr. Tricia Hornback, Newberg, Oregon, United States
 Linda Samek, -, -, Oregon Mathematics Education Council

Overview: The 2016 US election season has awakened deep-seated resentments, unleashing public incivility exposing fractures within many universities. Five academics report on current successes and failures in our diversity work within a dominant culture university manifesting this heightened social unrest. Response strategies in this new era of resistance and micro-aggression are detailed. Within a critical pedagogical framework, theories of identity development, systemic change and resistance inform strategy construction, implementation, and data analysis. Authors will detail activities engaging marginalized and dominant faculty, staff, and students including faculty engagement with student feedback, post-election dialogs, classroom activities, and faculty-led diversity initiatives. Case study outcome data will reveal affective responses inspiring personal commitment to change as well as overt hostility. The authors will address how these events force us to more fully connect with the magnitude of systemic privilege that allows dominant culture members to avoid the consequences of advocacy. Our current efforts are both inspiring and troubling. While we stand on a fractured precipice, it is a season of greater awakening and courage for those historically reticent to act. We conclude with steps to capitalize on this current state of heightened awareness.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
12:00-13:05 Lunch
Room 3 Focused Discussions
Do I Really Belong Here?: Pacific Island Boys' Sense of Belonging Experiences in Secondary School

Fuapepe Rimoni, Lecturer, Victoria University of Wellington

Overview: The benefits of achieving and gaining secondary school qualifications are numerous, including stronger foundations for life-long learning, easier access to tertiary education, and access to a wider range of opportunities in the job market. However, in New Zealand, there is little evidence available that informs both educators and educational institutes of whether a sense of belonging has a part to play in being identified as an academic achiever in secondary school. In this paper, I introduce a case study, which has been identified through "talanoa" (conversations) with young Samoan male students in secondary school, of their perceptions on "sense of belonging" and achieving at school. A case study approach is often used to build up a rich picture of an entity, using different kinds of data collection and gathering the views, perceptions, experiences, and/or ideas of diverse individuals relating to the case. I discuss some of the initial factors that have been identified by the young male students, asking if New Zealand secondary schools are catering to Pacific male students both spiritually, physically, and emotionally. Underpinned by the use of a Pacific conceptual framework called Fa’afaletui, the Samoan male students share their stories from the perspectives of being identified as a "tama Samoa" (Samoan boy), a tama Samoa son, a tama Samoa friend, and a tama Samoa as a student in the secondary school.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 4 Virtual Lightning Talks
Western Australian Community Discourses Concerning News Media Representations of People Seeking Asylum in Australia: Implications for Communications and Social Policy

Ashleigh Haw, PhD Candidate, School of Social Sciences, The University of Western Australia

Overview: In Australia, the issue of people seeking asylum has received widespread media attention, attracting considerable debate at both the political and community level. For people who support refugee resettlement in Australia, discourses of humanity and compassion are commonly voiced (Peterie, 2017; Fozdar and Pedersen, 2013). Conversely, those who oppose asylum seekers coming to Australia have routinely constructed them as illegal immigrants (Every and Augoustinos, 2008; Pedersen, et al, 2006; Clyne, 2005; Klocker 2004; Pickering, 2001), queue-jumpers (Markus and Dharmalingam, 2014; Augoustinos and Every, 2007; Pedersen, et al, 2005), and economic migrants (Saxton, 2003; Pickering, 2001). There is some empirical evidence to suggest that similar negative discourses are pervasive in Australian news content about asylum seekers, often mirroring political discourses that serve to justify punitive policies for managing asylum seekers (e.g. McKay, et al, 2011; Saxton, 2003). While some Australian research has explored media representations of people seeking asylum, no prior studies have focused on community perspectives regarding these news discourses. In the present study, Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995) was combined with Audience Reception Theory (Hall, 1993) to examine the perspectives of a sample Western Australians concerning news representations of people seeking asylum. Discussions of negativity, reliability, sensationalism, and transparency in Australian news constructions of asylum seekers were observed. These discourses are discussed with emphasis on the wider implications from both a research and policy perspective.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Room 5 Workshop
Cultural Humility in Collaborative Art Therapy Pedagogy

Dr. Louvenia Jackson, Assistant Professor, College of Communication and Fine Arts, Loyola Marymount University, -, California, United States
Dr. Anthony Bodlovic,

Overview: The workshop will illustrate the multicultural, co-facilitation of an art therapy masters-level diversity course. Instructors will present the course in detail, beginning with the dynamics of multicultural co-instruction. Following, the authors will offer tools, techniques, theory, and practice used throughout the course to engage students in the holistic approach of cultural humility when applied to art therapy practice. Art directives will be given to demonstrate directives used within the course. The workshop will conclude with a collective art piece, reporting of challenges and recognitions, conclusions and an interactive question and answer period.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 1 Posters and Virtual Posters
Striving to Deliver Excellent Transgender Health Care with Education and Resources: Experiences of a Northern California Health Care Organization

Surya Brown Moffitt, 
 Jen Hawkins, -, -, United States
 Travis Valdovinos, 
 Prital Patel, 
Dr. Barry Eisenberg, 
Dr. Nancy Brown,

Overview: Transgender people are highly vulnerable and routinely marginalized in the US, often experiencing severe health disparities. Many providers, administrators, and staff lack knowledge, experience, and confidence in caring for this population. In response, our Northern California health care organization has spent three years fostering diversity and inclusion by developing system-wide inclusion resource groups, public-facing web resources and content, an integrated approach to charting, coding, referrals, and EMR documentation for this population, CME-approved trainings on transgender health, including the gender spectrum, hormonal management, and surgical options, which have reached more than 600 providers and staff, and A robust internal collaboration site for education and training resources. Outcomes include measures documenting satisfaction with trainings provided, increased confidence in providing transgender health care, increased patient satisfaction, improved access to all specialties in all geographic locations, new patient growth, decreased number of referrals to other health care organizations, and contributions to our community benefit goals. We believe sharing our experience as a large health care organization in creating a welcoming and affirming environment will help others provide excellent care to every patient, every time.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
International Service Learning for Developing Globally Competent Educators: The Muffled Voices of the Children of Batey 7

Dr. Tonya Huber, Professor, College of Education, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas, United States
 Elizabeth R. Sanmiguel, -, -, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX, United States
 Lorena P. Cestou, -, -, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX, United States
 Mayra L. Hernandez, -, -, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX, United States

Overview: University students had the opportunity to experience authentic learning by engaging in international service learning during an alternative spring break with children of Haitian heritage who live in modern-day, slavery-like conditions on the sugarcane plantations in the Dominican Republic. To accomplish the goal of becoming more globally competent, the students engaged in teaching children that were from backgrounds extremely different from theirs. As two bilingual graduate students from the border community of Laredo, Texas, USA, and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, discovered the language that had marginalized them at home was an asset on the plantations where the Spanish language is seen as a way to move upward in the socio-economic order. The ISL’s framework was based on the concepts of liberatory pedagogy (Freire, 1968/1986), critical analysis through clips and captions (Huber, 2002, 2011), and ethnogenetic levels of causation (Tharp, 1994), as well as standards from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2016), InTASC with NAFSA Global Lens, and the NAFSA Cultural Awareness Profile. Further analysis of this experience facilitated the realization that international service learning education enables authentic learning opportunities since passionate and lived approaches are more meaningful than passive and artificial approaches.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Culturally Responsive Early Literacy Instruction with Native American Communities

Matthew Gillispie, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences & Disorders, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, United States

Overview: This paper introduces a framework for culturally responsive teaching/instruction and services, and demonstrates its application to Native American children within the provision of early language and literacy services and support. Culturally Responsive Early Literacy Instruction: American Indian/Alaska Native (CRELI) is a personnel preparation project at the University of Kansas and funded by the U.S. Department of Education: Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). CRELI addresses the personnel needs for speech-language pathologists with knowledge and experiences in early literacy instruction as well as cultural competency for serving American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. CRELI relies on the collaboration of project faculty, graduate student scholars, and two nearby educational entities: Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Early Childhood Center and Little Nations Academic Center at Haskell Indian Nations University. CRELI scholars, leaders, and partners have developed several four-day language and literacy units around published, tribally-specific storybooks. The author will provide rationale and components of culturally responsive teaching/instruction, especially as is it generally applies to diverse NA communities. They will also discuss the role and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists in reading and writing, with focus on emergent and early literacy. Last, the author will share the development, components, and lessons from some of the culturally-specific language and literacy units that CRELI has developed and implemented with NA children and the CRELI education partners. Attendees will be encouraged to identify the need and development of culturally responsive literacy units specific to the cultural groups in their community.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
The Influence of English Language Learning on Identity Construction and Reconstruction of Minority Kazakh Students at Universities in China

Sharapat , -, -, Nazarbayev University, Astana, -, Kazakhstan

Overview: This study focuses on a cohort of Kazakh minority students, exploring their English language learning experiences at Chinese universities and its impact on their identity (re)construction. The interest for this topic derives from my personal experience as a Kazakh minority person who grew up in Xinjiang, China. I have experienced identity confusion as someone in-between, neither fully accepted by Kazakh ethnic community since my proficiency in native Kazakh language was very low nor by Chinese majority group because I am ethnically identified as a Kazakh. The English language learning offered me the option to rethink this confused identity as not bound to either of those groups but transcend these ethnic and national identities to act inter-culturally as a multicultural man. The study is designed within the conceptual framework offered by Norton (2013) as "Imagined community, investment and identity." The minority group is always found in the unequal position compared with the dominant group in the society, with the investment in English learning, they have chance to reposition themselves from the unequal and marginalized position and reformat their identities as they imagine themselves as belonging to communities as "elite identity," "global citizen," "modernity," and so on. Based on the qualitative interview-based research design, I have conducted interviews with ten participants who are Kazakh minority students in Chinese universities. The findings suggest that those minority students view the English language as the opportunity to resist the feelings of inferiority and discrimination and accepted by the dominant group.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Skin Color as a Predictor of Mental Health in Young Latino Children

Jaimie O'gara, Austin, Texas, United States
Dr. Esther Calzada, Austin, Texas, United States
 Yeonwoo Kim, Austin, Texas, United States

Overview: This study investigates the association between skin color and externalizing and internalizing problems in young Latino children. Using a longitudinal study of Mexican- and Dominican-origin children (N=750), regression models were conducted to examine the direct effect of skin color on internalizing and externalizing problems in first grade. Interaction effects between skin color and behavior problems at baseline on behavior problems at first grade were also tested. Half of the children were rated as “moderately dark,” followed by “honorary white” (35%), and “collective black” (11%). Collective black children had greater mother-rated aggression at first grade compared to honorary white peers (β=.28). Moreover, the association between externalizing behaviors at baseline and first grade was stronger for collective black children compared to honorary white children, controlling for other predictors. Our findings suggest that color-based discrimination, in which negative traits are associated with darker skin (Hunter, 2016), may put darker-skinned Latino children at increased risk for more severe and/or more persistent mental health problems. Future research is needed to examine experiences of discrimination directed at young Latino children in order to develop intervention strategies to counteract the effects of colorism.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Bilingual Education and Mexican Tsotsil Children

Dr. Karla Del Carpio Ovando,

Overview: Education plays a vital role in today’s society and it is an important tool that can be used to heal and to bring the community together. That said, many times the true meaning and the purpose of education has been forgotten. An example of this is the transitional bilingual education that has been implemented in areas inhabited by indigenous peoples in Mexico where children are discriminated against and their linguistic and cultural rights are violated. This has damaged their personality and behavior. Children are shy, quiet, and isolated. The assimilation of indigenous children to the dominant society and with this forcing them to abandon their languages and traditions is not a problem that has happened only in Mexico or in other Latin American countries, but also in nations such as Canada and Australia where indigenous children were taken to schools where they were abused physically, mentally, and psychologically. In the case of Mexico, many indigenous children’s voices have been taken away since they have been taught in a language they do not understand. They have been silenced and their human, linguistic, and cultural rights have been violated. Therefore, it is emphasized that the creation and implementation of quality intercultural bilingual education can contribute to resolving this issue and to reconciling society. To do so, suggestions are given in this paper based on an ethnographic study conducted at a Spanish-Tsotsil elementary bilingual school located in Chiapas, Mexico.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
13:50-13:55 Transition Break
Room 1 Institutional Competencies
Diversity in the German Youth Service: Effects of Diversity on Colleagues and Clients

Timo Schreiner,

Overview: Youth service is part of Germany's welfare system and has a monitoring and counseling function. Within this current research, youth service is seen as an organisation with its own culture and rituals. Using organisational pedagogy, how diversity is defined and handled shall be analysed. The case study is based on the Grounded Theory and designed as a mixed method research. Interviews on all levels of the organisation were implemented. No fixed term of "diversity" was set, so the definition of diversity comes from members of the organisation itself. All employees of the organisation were asked with a questionnaire about their (social-)demographic data (age, gender, migration, etc.). The data were combined and first results shown. Migration Background e.g. is seen as a strategy to get into contact with the clients but the rate of migration within the organisation is very low, far beneath the communal average. Furthermore, diversity is seen as very positive and indicated as a factor for a good work climate, but there is also a very high identification with the own department and a high demarcation to the rest of the organisation. These results show that the effects of diversity were occasionally seen and interpreted contradictorially.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Using Evidence to Increase Cultural Competence during a Disaster Cycle: Educational Initiative for Healthcare Providers

Dr. Stephanie Pierce, Program Director, Baccalaureate Articulation, CARE, and Nurse Educator MSN Programs, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States

Overview: This program was developed at the Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response at a school of Nursing. The importance of training and educating health care providers in emergency preparedness and disaster response, and the need for cultural sensitivity in disasters has been well documented in the literature. The strengthening of the current state of emergency preparedness among health care professionals in Louisiana is still necessary twelve years after Hurricane Katrina. The training programs provide leadership, management skills, and policy development focused specifically on culturally competent nursing care during emergencies and disasters. The training programs are designed using various online and distance learning modalities as well as face-to-face educational programs for undergraduate and graduate student nurses and practicing registered nurses. Three core courses and ten specialty courses focus on increasing knowledge, understanding, and judgment to minimize health hazards and life-threatening damage to vulnerable populations during disasters. Courses offered online use materials to disseminate best practices on emergency preparedness and disaster management with the outcome of developing leaders that can create work environments that are educated on culturally competent interventions using a all hazards approach. Participation in the programs prepare nurses to lead and transform the health care delivery system through training, research, and utilization of resources and technology. The project directly impacts the Preparedness objective outlined in Healthy People 2020.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Connected Learning: Opportunities and Obstacles for Negotiating Intercultural Competency

Terra Gargano, Professorial Lecturer, School of International Service, American University, Washington, D.C., -, United States

Overview: Through a lens grounded in the six foundational characteristics of connected learning (interest-powered, production centered, peer supported, shared purpose, academically oriented, and openly-networked) this study will identify how online mediated learning through networked sites, in combination with professional training and personal experiences, influence the development of intercultural competency in graduate students. Questionnaires and interviews illuminate insights into how groups, platforms, resources, support structures, and relationships influence the negotiation of intercultural competency and cultural empathy. This research lies at the intersection of higher education, intercultural competency, and connected learning by examining why students participate and persist in the development of intercultural competency, what challenges students face along the way, how students reconcile conflict and create opportunities, and how students define salient learning outcomes.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 2 Labor Flows
Leading in the Asian Century: A National Scorecard of Australia’s Workforce Asia Capability

Lisa Annese, CEO, -, Diversity Council Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Dr. Jane O'Leary,

Overview: Asia accounts for over 50% of the world’s population and its consumer demand is worth U$10 trillion annually. For Australian businesses, one of the biggest impediments to realising this "Asian opportunity" is a lack of understanding about Asia capabilities – in particular which capabilities are critical to business success and how prevalent they are in the workforce. This study clearly defines and measures individual Asia Capability, to understand the prevalence of Asia capabilities in the Australian workforce. A survey which conceptualized and measured individual Asia capability was developed and piloted, then administered to a nationally representative sample of 2000 Australian workers. Findings were used to create a National Scorecard of Australia’s Workforce Asia Capability which mapped the nature and extent of Asia capabilities among Australia’s workforce, and enabled organisations to assess their workforce Asia Capability against a national benchmark. There is currently no agreed definition or measure of Asia capability in academic literature. The findings provide a theoretically and empirically-based conceptualization of individual Asia capability, consisting of experience, knowledge, and abilities in seven key Asia Capability Domains.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Women, Blacks, and the LGBT Population in Brazilian Unionism: A Case Study

Prof. João Góis, Associate Profesor, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, -, Brazil

Overview: This study examines the debate over minority groups and valuing diversity in one specific sector of Brazilian trade unionism, which was formed by faculty associations and trade unions in federal public institutions of higher education. Three key issues are addressed in this paper, including the process in which the debate mentioned above has been incorporated into these associations’ and trade unions’ agendas, the factors that have helped and those that have hindered the advance of that incorporation, and the real status achieved by the debate in the trade union organizations considered. The sources used in the study were interviews of sixteen trade union leaders from different universities,and documents, such as working reports, produced by trade unions and posted on their websites. The debate in question continues, by and large, to occupy a fringe position. However, a growing movement can be seen to be attributing it higher status.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Attitudes towards Homosexuality Based on Religion and Workplace Discrimination

Ikraam Kraft, Management Consultant Associate, Advisory , PricewaterhouseCoopers, Midrand, Gauteng, South Africa
 Lusanda Sekaja, 
Dr. Byron G. Adams,

Overview: In many societies, individuals hold negative attitudes towards homosexuality and, as a result, homophobia is widespread. Religion has been identified as one of the main contributing factors that determine an individual’s attitude towards homosexuality In some instances, members of a religious group may experience discrimination in the workplace, which may further influence their attitudes towards homosexuality. Historically, discrimination against people has been rife in South Africa, and laws have been developed to discourage such behaviour. This study assesses whether religion and experiences of workplace discrimination negatively influence attitudes towards homosexuality. The study was carried out using a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional research design. The Religious Identity Short Scale, the Centrality of Religiosity Scale, the Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale, and the Chronic Work Discrimination and Harassment Scale were administered to various participants (n = 449) across organisations in South Africa. The results from indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between religious identity and negative attitudes towards homosexuality for Catholics and Muslims, whereas general religiosity accounted for negative attitudes towards homosexuality for Protestant Christian Groups. Furthermore, experiences of discrimination were statistically significant for negative attitudes towards homosexuality. These findings suggest that religious individuals and individuals who experience discrimination are more inclined to hold negative attitudes towards homosexuality, which could influence relationships in the workplace. Therefore, organisations should provide training to counter negative attitudes towards homosexuality and create policies that protect individuals in the workplace who identify as homosexual.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Room 3 Learning Communities
From Diversity to Inclusion: Integrating Elements of Diversity into Curriculum and Facilitation that Fosters an Inclusion Learning Community

Dr. Jalin B. Johnson, 
Dr. Laura M. Galloway, Assistant Professor, Human Resources and Organizational Leadership, Brandman University, Irvine, CA, United States
Dr. Monica Shukla, 
Dr. Sheila Lakshmi Steinberg,

Overview: In both the synchronous and asynchronous settings, course design and facilitation that focuses on enhancing inclusive educational experiences must consider that diversity is defined by the participants of the shared learning environment. This type of inclusive learning environment can create deep, meaningful, and transformative learning experiences for each student. Inclusivity means that one must consider the role of culture, space, and place in creating a community of learners. In this discussion, factors such as diversity of thought, culture, background, knowledge, opinion, and personal and professional experience are necessary when designing and facilitating for inclusion. For example, the role of culture is often neglected in regards to teaching and learning. Different geographic areas throughout the country set the demographic backdrop for diverse cultures and societies. In this paper we discuss the importance of culture and place as an additional factor to be considered when designing and facilitating learning. Furthermore, we will deliberate tools and resources used to offer a varied platform for students and instructors to focus on an array of pertinent issues to be used in both the in-person and the online driven pedagogy models. Different students possess varying learning styles so here we try to account for this diversity in learning through employing multi-modal teaching approaches. Overall, this approach of integrating diversity in the framework of the curriculum leads to educational and social outcomes that further support the students’ professional development as a global citizen.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Diversity and Inclusion: A Case in Practice

Sandra Healy, Head of Diversity and Inclusion, Equality Office, Dublin City University, Dublin, -, Ireland

Overview: In 2018, Dublin City University established a Centre of Excellence on Diversity and Inclusion. One of a kind in Europe, the Centre helps organisations build cultures of inclusion by providing access to the very latest in academic research, insights and tools on diversity and inclusion. Unlike traditional consultancy services, the DCU Centre of Excellence is accessible and affordable, building on the principles of integrity, research excellence and shared learning. The presentation will explore DCU’s own diversity and inclusion journey, the establishment of the Centre, and examples of current industry partner projects focusing on key issues related to workplace diversity and inclusion.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Breaking New Ground: Telling the Stories of Five First Generation Hispanic Music Education Majors at a Mid-sized United States University

Dr. Nancy Glen,

Overview: My paper will describe the results of research on the impact of being a First Generation Hispanic student (FGHS), majoring in Music Education at a mid-sized university in the US. Data were collected through recorded interviews with each student, through a variety of questions designed to learn about their life histories, families, and experiences as a student. Students identifying as FGHS self-selected to be part of the study. Interview questions were designed with the director of a campus resource center for Hispanic students, in order to maintain the highest level of cultural sensitivity. Results have been reviewed, pursuant to the goal of identifying how their backgrounds, families, and self-identifications have impacted their experiences in college, and how they envision their future personal and career lives after their education is complete. This research determines how students from an underrepresented population on this university campus describe their experiences, and how their families have reacted to their career and life plans. Their range of responses has fallen on a wide continuum, and implications will be discussed as they pertain to whether their experiences can be generalized to their ethnic background, and how this has impacted their college experience.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Room 4 Defining Domestic Space
Unwed Motherhood in Transition : Experiences from South Korean Child Rearing by Unwed Mothers

Boon Young Han, Assistant Professor , -, Hankuk University of Foreign Languages, Seoul, -, South Korea

Overview: The intercountry adoption program has widely been described from the perspective of the receiving countries. Literature authored by adoptive parents is abundant, and in recent years adult adoptees have made important contributions through activism, the arts, and scholarly work. However, many voices from the sending countries remain unheard in the receiving countries; one essential voice missing is that of the original family. More than 91% of the children adopted from South Korea between 2008 and 2015 were born to unwed mothers. While not all South Korean intercountry adoptees since the 1950s have been born to unwed mothers, the social stigma of unwed motherhood in South Korea, does suggest that all unwed mothers who choose to rear their children, at some point have experienced discrimination. Today, a growing number of unwed mothers are able to assert their right to their children, but the pressure to give them up remains. The unwed mothers’ parents, friends as well as health professionals commonly try to convince them to relinquish their children, or before that, not carry the pregnancy to term. The struggles of South Korean unwed mothers are more than a cultural characteristic, or the result thereof, as these women’s circumstances are closely tied to the intercountry adoption program. Thus, their voices are essential to understand not only the South Korean child welfare system but also the intercountry adoption program. Drawing on in-depth interviews with child rearing unwed mothers, this paper discusses how unwed motherhood in South Korea is changing.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Gender Negotiations in Nigerian Households in Ireland

Inga Wójcik, -, -, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland

Overview: This paper investigates intergenerational gender negotiations in Nigerian households in Ireland. The research does not focus on ‘integration’ or ‘assimilation’ of the minority ethnic youth, but rather feelings of belonging, participation and integration on their own terms. In doing so, the research shifts away from what Nancy Lopez describes as ‘ethnicity paradigm’ where the primary objective of the study is to discover how certain, presumably inherent cultural characteristics of a given minority group either facilitate or delay integration into the mainstream society. That is, instead of asking how they assimilate, the study asks how they are racialized and gendered and how racialized and gendered experiences shape their daily lives. Echoing Yen Espiritu’s research of Filipino families in the US, this research approaches household negotiations not as a private matter, but recognizes the influence of social, historical and transnational dynamics on intergenerational relations. Thus, the study investigates how migrant families and individuals in Ireland are negotiating gender being subject to specific gendered and racialized discourses. Here, the discourses are being viewed through a historical post-colonial perspective particular to Ireland, where while the British have successfully constructed the Irish as a subordinate race, the Irish have been significantly involved in the British ‘civilising missions’ in Africa, including Nigeria. The processes of both being colonised and contributing to colonisation led to specific ideologies of gender, Irishness and the ‘Other’. This paper examines the role of these historical colonial dynamics on contemporary migration in Ireland.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Missing Women in Pakistan: Causes and Policy Recommendations for the Country

Fizza Raza, Research Associate, Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives, -, -, Pakistan

Overview: The term "missing women” refers to the deficit of women, primarily in Asia and Northern Africa which arises from the difference in treatment received by both sexes before and after birth (Sen 1990). Pakistan is one of the those countries where the issue of gender imbalance has not been studied in much detail. This paper uses data from three rounds of demographic and health surveys (DHS) to study the trend of sex ratios at birth as well as early childhood years. The latest round of DHS (2013) shows that the sex ratios at birth have become less skewed from 113.1 to 102.5. The study analyses the reasons responsible for this change. Have the sex ratios improved in reality or is it merely because of an improvement in reporting of female births? The paper then describes and analyses the causes and main reasons responsible for skewed sex ratios. Lastly, comparisons are made with the neighboring countries (China and India) who are already experiencing the same issue but at a higher magnitude, in order to study the policy recommendations to combat the issue of gender imbalance.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Room 5 Diversifying the Academy
Student Perception of the Utility of Diversity in a Doctoral Program

Deborah Jackson, 
Dr. Nancy J Duresky,

Overview: Many scholars have written about the benefits of diversity in education (Tanner Hermond, Vairez, and Leslie, unpublished; Tanner and Frank, 2013). Graduate schools have responded to these findings by hiring a diverse faculty and seeking a diverse student body. The current paper surveyed the graduate students of a small, accredited graduate university in a large city on the West Coast of the United States. The focus of the school is on management of organizations and consulting with profit and nonprofit organizations. This school prides itself on its diversity: More than half of the student body in this program identifies as other-than-white; more than half of the student body identifies as female; additionally, there is diversity of sexual orientation, religion, background, and political leaning. The faculty is diverse vis-à-vis the same categories as the students. Yet, it is unclear if the students see the faculty’s diversity as positively contributing to their educational experience. The current paper surveyed the thirty-three students in the program to determine their perceptions of the role of diversity in their learning experience. How students value the diversity among their co-students and faculty was assessed.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Diversity in an Academic Doctoral Program: A Case Study

Dr. Nancy J Duresky, 
Dr. Tora Brown,

Overview: When confronted about the lack of ethnic or gender diversity in an organization, many organizations issue statements about the difficulty in finding qualified female candidates or qualified candidates of color. Conversely, many women and employees of color state that they experience either their male counterparts or white counterparts with equivalent credentials advance at a more rapid rate. The strategy of some employees is to seek an advanced degree to assist in organizational advancement. This case study examines the reasons that graduate students seek a doctoral degree. The case study was conducted at a small non-profit graduate institute in a large urban area on the Pacific Coast of the United States. Thirty-two graduate students, currently enrolled, participated in the study. The student body of the graduate institute is highly diverse with regard to gender, sexual orientation, ethnic group, age, and religion. For example, the program is about 66% female and more than 60% of the students identify as non-white. First, the reasons students choose to pursue a doctoral degree were assessed. Second, the graduate students’ perceptions vis-à-vis meeting their needs were detailed. Finally, the measures taken by the program to promote diversity are detailed.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
15:10-15:25 Coffee Break
Room 1 Community Profiles
When Does Residential Isolation Adversely Affect Health?: The Decline of White America

Lee Mobley, Associate Professor, School of Public Health and the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

Overview: The most segregated white communities exhibit significantly higher rates of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis, which is associated with greater disease morbidity and mortality than diagnoses at early stages. We examine all breast cancer cases in the US and see an emerging trend over more recent time. Living in the most segregated Black or Hispanic communities is not associated with this increased health risk. With the white mortality rate increasing faster than the rate for other races and ethnicities, we look to the psychological and the social science literatures to examine this phenomenon in the context of social disorder and disease. This research was conducted using the entire US Cancer Statistics database inside the secure Federal Research Data Center at the Atlanta CDC.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Challenges of Providing Child Welfare and Child Protection Services When Language Barriers Exist: Burdens Experienced by Service Providers and Clients

Dr. Sarah Maiter, Professor, School of Social Work, York University, Toronto, -, Canada

Overview: Increased transmigration of people requires that social service agencies provide support in ways that address issues for newcomers who utilize their services or are targeted for intervention. Language barriers when service users do not speak the languages of a country can prevent responsive services and can be a burden for individual practitioners that can go unnoticed by agencies. This paper reports on findings from a qualitative research study that utilized focus group interviewing to explore ways in which child protection workers responded to families and the strategies they used in service provision where language barriers existed. Specifically, since the study was conducted in Canada, the exploration focused on provision of services to clients with limited English proficiency. Findings show that agencies hire bilingual and multilingual workers to an extent and use interpreters on occasion. Although benefits are noted when using these strategies, numerous challenges were also identified in both situations, including challenges in forming relationships with clients, lack of relevant services for immigrant families, lack of clear protocols in using interpreters, over/inappropriate use of bilingual workers, and inadequate training of interpreters and bilingual workers. These challenges placed additional "burdens" for service providers that go unrecognized by agencies. Burdens identified by bilingual/multilingual workers and by those using interpreters suggest that agencies need to provide better guidelines and training for services and examine ways in which to recognize the struggles of workers in their efforts to be responsive to their clients.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Breaking the Cycle: Community, Health Disparities and Social Economic Inequality : Finding a Pathway to Building a Healthy Community

Yandong Lena Liu, Assistant Professor/Researcher, Health Systems Management, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States

Overview: When discussing issues of health disparities and socioeconomic inequality, one cannot separate them from communities, especially those with minorities and cultural diversity. The community as part of society offers a rich and powerful content. It embeds itself largely in a physical social environment, that not only represents a geographical location but includes groups of people of various ages, genders, ethnicities, cultural origins, primary languages as well as their social economic status that ties to social identity and education attainment, employment status, income level and immigration status. Community growth is determined by social conditions, which are products of society. Resources and environmental safety are two elements that often contribute to a community’s capacity for development. The community is also a producer that interacts and influences the society actively. This discussion will focus on the West Side and Near West Side of Chicago communities as examples to illustrate the importance of social cohesion from a community health perspective. It will review social determinants that have influenced the communities’ overall health and development and identify key parties that can contribute with positive long-lasting changes. This work seeks to find a practical pathway to bring local government, policy makers and crucial professional partners together to create opportunities for diverse communities that have long battled with multiple challenges due to damaged social economic conditions.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
Room 2 Moving Forward
You're Not Welcome Here: Perceived Discriminatory Experiences of Lesbian Employees in the South African Context

Lusanda Sekaja,

Overview: The discrimination of gay and lesbian individuals is widely known from a global perspective. However, there is a dearth of studies on this topic, especially from the lesbian point of view in the African context. This study specifically explores the nature of perceived discriminatory practices as experienced by South African lesbian employees. A qualitative approach was used with phenomenological hermeneutics as the method of data analysis. Data were collected through the means of semi-structured interviews with nine lesbian employees from various industries within the Gauteng region. The findings suggest that lesbian individuals experience discrimination at work. The predominant themes generated were fear of coming out, differential treatment, us and them, victimisation, inappropriate jokes, stereotyping, sexual harassment, prejudice, gossip, and religious intolerance. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge pertaining to the discrimination of the LGBTQ, especially lesbian, community in the South African context. Moreover, it is hoped that this awareness will bring about much-needed changes to management practices and a re-examination of human resource practices and policies regarding diversity training and anti-discrimination.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
How I Got out of the “Gutters”: Narrating Ex-prisoners’ Life Stories Becoming Social Change Agents in Supporting Rural Township Communities

Prof. Micheal M Van Wyk, Professor, Curriculum and Instructional Studies, University of South Africa, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Overview: Social entrepreneurship education has shown a growing interest in using narrative inquiry-based research strategies to advance the diversity agenda of the marginalised globally. This study examines the life stories of ex-prisoners becoming social entrepreneurs in their respective rural township communities. The conceptual framework for this study is based on the critical events theory, social economics capabilities theory, and adaptive social entrepreneurial constructs. A life history narrative inquiry-based approach was employed for conducting this study. Interviews were conducted, recorded, and analysed. Findings relating from schooling experiences to corporate social responsibility and community engagement emerged from the data. There is much work to be done on furthering the critical events theory and the capability theory to explore issues relating to gender inequality, funding for entrepreneurs, environmental issues, competence, and social class. More empirical data need to be collected on micro-data rural women in entrepreneurship. Research need to be conducted to collect data on issues of gendered nature of preference formation, culture, social class, and the constraints on choice of business.
Theme:Identity and Belonging
Sustainable Well-being: Expanding the Practice of Sustainable Livelihood Framework in Service Delivery

Dr. Ernie Alama,

Overview: Finding sustainable solutions beyond financial interventions to end poverty continue to challenge governments, not-for-profit agencies, philanthropists, and funders. This paper explores sustainable solutions anchored in the assets or strength-based approach, which trust in people’s capacities to make changes. The study utilized case study method and narrative inquiry to collect and analyze experiences and stories of participants of three cohorts: lone parents, new immigrants, and at-risk youth. Findings suggest that strong natural supports and sense of group belonging are key factors to successful transitions; that fostering trust in the community and social engagement is integral to building self-sufficiency and sustainable well-being of individuals; and that a holistic approach to sustainable livelihood, taking into consideration the emotional and spiritual aspects of people, is key to achieving sustainability in the long term.
Theme:Community Diversity and Governance
Room 3 Policy to Practice
An Examination of Minority Student Retention, Progression and Graduation at Columbus State University, Georgia

Amitabh Dutta, Associate Professor of Finance, Bisk College of Business, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL, United States
Dr. Florence Wakoko-Studstill, 
 Roger Su, 
Dr. Sridhar Sitharaman,

Overview: This paper evaluates the progress made by Columbus State University (CSU) in admitting, retaining, and ultimately graduating minority students. The central focus of the study is to document the structural resources on campus, and available supporting initiatives from faculty and staff and analyzing the data from university records about minority student retention, progression, and graduation (RPG) over the years 1997-2012. The analysis is framed within the existing literature on student engagement and retention. Our basic premise is that RPG for racial minorities and African American students in particular, has increased. This increase is associated with a series of policy interventions that have been implemented at CSU over the years such as the Diversity Inclusion Initiatives.
Theme:Education and Learning in a World of Difference
Student Diversity Policy in Higher Education: Between Social and Economic Equity

Ayala Hendin,

Overview: In Israel, higher education is a meeting point between groups who were mostly segregated previously. Students come from a divided K-12 system, originate from different socio-economic surroundings in varying distances from social-economic-geographic centers, and are immigrants or from immigrant families. Encounters and diversity de-facto occur in a rapidly expanding academic system lacking clear and consistent diversity traditions and policies. A paradoxical reality emerges where diversity is “owned” when it proves valuable, and “disowned” when challenging. The paper explains national intervention patterns in student composition, situating them in a complex, multi-dimensional context of economic and social policy logics pushing and pulling in different directions; three policy levels – perceptions, policy and implementation practices – not always fully aligned; national, institutional and departmental policy arenas; and top-down and bottom-up policy initiatives. I examined national policies between 1990-2015, using policy documents and interviews with policy makers, inspired by post-structural traditions and by policy discourse analysis. This research holds theoretical, empirical and practical implications. It defines diversity as a perception and policy, alongside a practice. It situates diversity policies in Israel within a broader theoretical and international context and offers analytical tools for realizing the value of student diversity while transitioning from policy to practice.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Measuring the Impacts of Diversity Policies on Organizational Performance

Jocelyn McGrandle,

Overview: The theory of representative bureaucracy posits that a bureaucracy that is demographically reflective of the broader population it serves will produce better policies and outcomes for the organization and for society as a whole. In modern public bureaucracies, a bureaucracy becomes representative through the implementation of diversity policies. The better outcomes (organizational performance) can be measured through factors such as job satisfaction, cultural synergy, and person-job fit. These outcomes are important for the overall effectiveness of government as they impact a wide variety of factors like employee morale, absenteeism, turnover, or problem-solving capabilities and general work outputs. Currently, there is no consensus as to what the best diversity policy is, or which policies have the best performance outcomes. Therefore, this study will measure organizational performance outputs of different diversity policies within a similar context in order to ameliorate this discord and provide some conclusive evidence as to which diversity policy has stronger organizational performance. In this study, which will focus on the Canadian context, equal employment opportunity (EEO) and diversity management (DM) will be tested, as these are the two different types of policies that exist in Canada. This will be done quantitatively through an analysis of two public service censuses. Hence, the current study pursues the following question: how do different types of diversity policies affect organizational performance in public sector organizations? In this research, types of diversity policies are the independent variable, and organizational performance is the dependent variable.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Room 4 Innovation Case Studies
Global Leadership

Marcelle Davis,

Overview: Organizations continue to expand beyond United States borders. What are the key competencies leaders must have to ensure successful expansion and be effective in their role? Leaders are faced with many challenges today. As the marketplace expands and our borders become more fluid, leaders must ensure their organizations maintain a competitive edge while effectively leading a diverse workforce. While there are different types of diversity, there are key leadership competencies that are necessary for success as you take your organization to the next level. This innovation showcase will teach you about the critical skills and techniques a global leader needs. It will demonstrate how global leadership impacts the individual, the team, and the organization as a whole. After teaching the importance of these skills, the facilitator will engage audience with small group exercises - they are given challenges that require small group discussion in order to develop a solution. This allows the facilitator to gauge depth of audience's understanding and ability to apply skills that were taught.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Stuck in the Mud No More: How to Get Your Sluggish Diversity Initiative Moving Again

Dr. Paul Hawkins, Board Chair, -, Working Diversity, Inc., Memphis, TN, United States

Overview: Organizational diversity initiatives are often beset by unexpected problems. In this session we learn how to diagnose and fix them. Seasoned practitioners know that organizational diversity initiatives rarely go as well as planned. Risks, unforeseen or unmitigated, routinely spring up, impeding progress and causing well-intentioned initiatives to underperform. The good news is that since these problems are common, many people have found creative ways to solve them, and the lessons they have learned can be taught to others. In this session we draw upon the wisdom of a generation of organizational diversity leaders, distilling it into a set of key principles that anyone can understand. We not only learn these principles, we gain hands-on practice applying them to real world situations, effectively transforming the principles into a troubleshooting guide. By the time the session ends, you as a participant will know how to pinpoint the root cause of whatever is impeding your progress. You will also gain experience crafting a succinct action plan so you can effectively respond. This innovative workshop is for you whether you are an aspiring or current organizational diversity practitioner, novice or veteran. It will be especially beneficial if you are currently trying to solve a tough diversity-related problem, if not a full-blown crisis.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
Social Return on Engagement: A Social Change Theory and Practice Exploration

Stephen Baxter, 
Dr. Ernie Alama,

Overview: Social return on investment is a well explored method of measuring change in the social development world. Frameworks used to evaluate social impact primarily draw from business management sectors that reduce the social value of programs and services of non-profits to a dollar value (Arvidson et al., 2010). What is less explored, however, is the return on social engagement. Researchers at Aspen Family and Community Network have been exploring innovations around concepts, practices, and metrics of social engagement. They proposed Social Return on Engagement (SROETM) to provide a framework of service delivery and a tool to capture meaningful social engagement and its returns. Drawing from a larger mixed-methods study, SROE will be presented as a social innovation and a contribution to knowledge on engagement and social change. In working with diverse populations, assessing the social value and returns on social engagement is an empowering approach by understanding how supportive networks and resources that can be drawn upon in times of need (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1993; Putnam, 1995). The study is built on preliminary and mid-research findings. Implications on the application and relevance of SROE for international and local community development practice, education, research, and policy will be discussed.
Theme:Organizational Diversity
16:40-17:10 Closing Session and Awards Ceremony