Indo-Pacific Grand Strategy

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The neoclassical realist theoretical paradigm emphasizes the importance of analyzing the unique complexity of state polity composition to analyze foreign policy behavior. Promotion of sustainable development generates opportunities for enhancing government bargaining leverage in international diplomacy by acquisition of international high-profile leadership roles in supporting global sustainable development in the midst of climate change adaptation. States acquire opportunities to increase their international influence amidst trends in global governance to address these sustainable development challenges. Promoting multilateral treaty framework initiatives and their implementation increases their bargaining leverage. Accelerating national sustainable development reflects awareness globally of economic interdependence. Prior to the Trump administration, the United States and China competed for influence partly by contending for leadership in global initiatives for sustainable development in the post-Cold War era. Indo-Pacific state political responses require the analysis of the nature of these states themselves to adequately comprehend this competition for influence. Nation-states demonstrate significantly different patterns of policy goal behavior than non-nation, multiethnic states. Most Indo-Pacific states are postcolonial, multiethnic states. Atypical Vietnam is much more resistant to Chinese claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam is a nation-state; consequently, it is more likely to perceive challenges and display nationalist behavior patterns. The Philippines have moved to improve relations with China. Relative predisposition toward nationalistic state behavior is a critical factor shaping Indo-Pacific responses to sustainable development challenges.