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Contact and Colonisation

Australian History: First Fleet, Convicts, Aboriginal Australians

Learning Module

Abstract

Year 3 and 4 students learn about the colonisation of Australia and explore the impact of settlement for early settlers, convicts and Indigenous Australians.They investigate what it would have been like to live the live of a first settler or convict. Through the immersion inf a convict camp at Birrigai, students experience first hand what it would have been like to be away from family and having your freedom taken.

Keywords

Australian history, First Fleet, Convicts, Indigenous Australians.

Knowledge Objectives

The relevant History Year 4 Content Descriptions of the Australian Curriculum History are included on the "For the Teacher" side of each update.

Inquiry and skills

Questioning

Pose questions to investigate people, events, places and issues (ACHASSI052, ACHASSI073)

Researching

Locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations (ACHASSI053, ACHASSI074)

Record, sort and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different formats, including simple graphs, tables and maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI054, ACHASSI075)

Sequence information about people’s lives and events (ACHASSI055, ACHASSI076)

Analysing

Examine information to identify different points of view and distinguish facts from opinions (ACHASSI056, ACHASSI077))

Interpret data and information displayed in different formats, to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns (ACHASSI057, ACHASSI078)

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on analysis of information and data (ACHASSI058, (ACHASSI079)

Interact with others with respect to share points of view (ACHASSI059, ACHASSI080)

Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms (ACHASSI061, ACHASSI082)

Numeracy

Using units of measurement:

Year 3 - Investigate the relationship between units of time

Year 4 - Convert between units of time

1. Setting the Scene

For the Student

LI: To understand that people have come to live in Australia for different reasons.   

SC: I can explain some of the reasons why people came to live in Australia.

Our inquiry questions for this learning module are:

  • Why did Europeans settle in Australia?
  • What was life like for the early settlers and convicts?
  • What was life like for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples before and after the arrival of the Europeans?

Think about how your family came to live in Australia. Think-Pair-Share:

- When did you or your relatives move to Australia?

- Where did they come from?

- Why did they move to Australia?

Discuss your answers in the class discussion.

Write down on a post-it note when your family moved to Australia and place it on the class timeline.

Fig. 1: Where did you come from?

For the Teacher

Purpose: To develop students' understanding of the different reasons and circumstances under which people have come to live in Australia, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, convicts, early European settlers and student's own families.   

Teaching Tips:

Create a timeline with the following points labelled on it and put student's post in notes in appropriate places along the timeline.  

Timeline

50,000 years ago: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders migrated to Australia from Asia. At that time the sea levels were lower than they are today and there were land bridges connecting Australia to Tasmania and Papua New Guinea.

20,000 years ago: The sea levels rose after the ice age creating many small islands in the channel between Australia and Papua New Guinea called the Torres Strait. The people who lived on these islands are called Torres Strait Islanders.

248 years ago: In 1770 Captain Cook first arrived in Australia.

230 years ago: The First Fleet arrived in Australia in 1788 with the first Europeans to settle in Australia .

Australian Curriculum

History Year 4 Content Descriptions

The diversity of Australia's first peoples and the long and continuous connection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Country/Place (land, sea, waterways and skies)(ACHASSK083)

Inquiry and Skills

  • Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms (ACHASSI061, ACHASSI082)

2. The First Fleet

For the Student

LI: To develop an understanding of the journey of the First Fleet.

SC: I can explain what the First Fleet was and why it sailed to Australia. 

The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships that travelled from England to Australia to set up a jail that became the first European settlement in Australia. The First Fleet set sail from England on 13 May 1787 and arrived in Botany Bay in Australia on 26 January 1788. 

As a class we are going to watch a video and read a book about the First Fleet. Choose one of the following questions to focus on while watching the video and reading the book and answer the question in your unit book, writing in full sentences. Be prepared to share your answer with the class. 

- Why did the First Fleet travel to Australia?

- Who travelled on the First Fleet?

- What were the conditions like on the ships?

Fig. 2: Arrival of the First Fleet in Port Jackson in 1788

For the Teacher

Purpose: To deepen students' understanding of how the First Fleet came to be.

Teaching Tips: 

Explicitly teach that the First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships that left England on 13 May 1787 to establish a penal colony (jail) that became the first European settlement in Australia. The First Fleet arrived in Australia in January 1788, establishing a settlement at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. 

Tell students that as a class we will watch a "Behind the News" story and read a book on the First Fleet. Ask students to choose one of the following questions to focus on. Students will need to answer the questions in their unit books, using full sentences. 

Questions: 

- Why did the First Fleet travel to Australia?

- Who travelled on the First Fleet?

- What were the conditions like on the ships?

Show class 'First Fleet' on Behind the News.

- Read 'The First Fleet' by Alan Boardman & Roland Harvey.

- Lead a classroom discussion based on the questions and asking students to share their responses.

Resources

The First Fleet by Alan Boardman & Roland Harvey 

TeachingTips:

Use a cooperative learning discussion strategy to increase accountability, scaffold & deepen learning and to include all students in the thinking.

Australian Curriculum

History Year 4 Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

The nature of contact between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and others, and the effects of these interactions on, for example, people and environments (ACHASSK086)

Inquiry and skills

  • Researching

Locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations (ACHASSI053, ACHASSI074)

Sequence information about people’s lives and events (ACHASSI055, ACHASSI076)

3. The First Fleet Artwork

For the Student

LI: To understand what life was like for a convict imprisoned in a hulk and sentenced to transportation to New South Wales. 

SC:

  • I can explain what it would have felt like to be a prisoner on a hulk.
  • I can draw a picture from the perspective of looking out the window of a hulk.

For our previous activity we read the text The First Fleet.

Look at these images of life in England prior to sailing to Australia.  What can you see?

Fig. 3a: A convict hulk
Fig. 3b: The Thames River in London

Using a pencil, draw an A4 picture of what England might have looked like from the hulk of the ship. Use the images and story to help you with your detail.

Using black strips of paper to overlay your picture to create prison bars.

Post a comment, answering this question:

Comment: Explain how you think the convicts would have felt when they were sent to serve time on the hulks and before leaving for Australia. 

For the Teacher

Purpose: Students begin to develop empathy for how the convicts may have been feeling as they set sail for Australia.

Teaching Tips:

After reading The First Fleet, look at the images and artworks of England at the time the First Fleet left.  Ask students to discuss what they see in the images. 

Have students imagine the view of London from a hulk and use the descriptions from The First Fleet and the images to draw a scene of London from the River.

Students will then create prison bars using black cardboard or paper to overlay their drawing.

Students then post a comment, answering the quesion...Explain how you think the convicts would have felt when they were sent to serve time on the hulks and before leaving for Australia. 

This could be part of a Portfolio Piece.

Australian Curriculum

History Year 4 Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

Inquiry and skills

  • Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms (ACHASSI061, ACHASSI082)

4. Birrigai Camp Reflection

For the Student

LI: To understand what life was like for an early European settler in Australia.

SC: I can explain what life would have been like for the early European settlers and some of the challenges they faced.

Think about the Early Settler activities you participated in at camp as well as the bush walking and camp fire activities. If you stayed at school, think about what you have learnt about convicts and European Settlement so far in class.

In small groups, discuss:

- what was life like for the early settlers?

- how was life different from the places the early settlers had moved from?

- what challenges did the early settlers face?

- what did the early settlers do to survive?

(Remember there might be people in your group who did not attend camp so make sure you provide interesting information about the things you learned).

As a class discuss some of the ideas raised in the small groups.

As a class consider the consequences of the following "what if" questions:

- what if there was a flood?

- What if there was a drought?

Fig. 4: Convicts in 1793

For the Teacher

Purpose: Students draw on their hands-on experiences in the Early Settler activities at camp to develop an understanding of what life was like for the early European settlers in Australia and the challenges they faced.

Teaching Tips:  Students who attended Birrigai Camp reflect on their participation in the Early Settlers program run by Birrigai Outdoor Education School including working as a team, going on an Explorer's Walk, making fire and damper and the Homesteading Activity. Students who did not attend camp are to draw on their knowledge of early settlement so far gained from the unit.  Encourage students who attended camp to describe the activities to the students who did not attend to develop a shared understanding.

Resources

For more information, see the Early Settlers program .

Australian Curriculum

History Year 4 Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

Inquiry and skills

  • Questioning

Pose questions to investigate people, events, places and issues (ACHASSI052, ACHASSI073)

  • Researching

Locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations (ACHASSI053, ACHASSI074)

Record, sort and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different formats, including simple graphs, tables and maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions (ACHASSI054, ACHASSI075)

Sequence information about people’s lives and events (ACHASSI055, ACHASSI076)

  • Analysing

Examine information to identify different points of view and distinguish facts from opinions (ACHASSI056, ACHASSI077))

Interpret data and information displayed in different formats, to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns (ACHASSI057, ACHASSI078)

  • Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on analysis of information and data (ACHASSI058, (ACHASSI079)

Interact with others with respect to share points of view (ACHASSI059, ACHASSI080)

  • Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms (ACHASSI061, ACHASSI082)

5. Meeting Your Convict

For the Student

LI: To understand a variety of facts about the life of a chosen convict.

SC: I can research the details of a convict.

Walking in a Convict’s Shoes

You will access some websites and books that have information on some of the convicts that were forced to travel from England to Australia.  Use your chrome book to go to these links or use the books from the school library. 

Convict Identities

List of Convicts on the First Fleet

Choose one of the convicts to research.  Find the following information about your convict and record in your Integrated Studies books to create a Convict Profile. 

1. Name

2. Age

3. Education status,

4. Name of their transport ship

5. Crime your convict committed

6. Length of your chosen convict's sentence 

7. Other interesting facts

Use Google Slides to create a presentation detailing the information about your chosen convict. 

Comment

Post a comment to the community with the name of your chosen convict and at least 3 interesting facts you found out about them.

You may use this sentence starter to help you:

I found out that my convict...

Fig. 5: Chain gang of convicts in New South Wales


For the Teacher

Purpose: To develop research skills using primary and secondary sources. 

Teaching Tips: Encourage students to browse through the convict records and choose a convict that both interests them and for whom most of the required information is available. 

Walking in a Convict’s Shoes

Students select one the convicts to research.  Using the information found at this website, students are to create a convict profile, recording information such as name, age, education status, name of their transport ship, crime, length of their sentence and any other personal information.  Students record their information into their Integrated Studies books.

Students will then access Google Slides to create a presentation of their chosen convict. Students are required to include information such as name, age, education status, transport ship, crime, sentence and personal information within their presentation.

Students then post a comment to the community with the name of their convict and five interesting facts they found.

Students may use the following sentence starter to assist them in writing their comment:

I found out that my convict...

Australian Curriculum

Year 4 Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

Inquiry and skills

  • Questioning

Pose questions to investigate people, events, places and issues (ACHASSI052, ACHASSI073)

6. Dressing Like a Convict

For the Student

LI: To understand what daily life was like for convicts.

SC:

  • I can research about convict clothing.
  • I can illustrate my findings.

Use a Chrome Book, follow the links to the following websites. Observe, read and examine the information on the clothes convicts had to wear.

What did convicts wear

A day in the life of a convict

On blank paper create an illustration of your convict wearing convict clothing. Make sure you include information you learned from the slide show. Include details such as a hat, shoes, buttons and appropriate colours etc. You may choose to use a template of the outline of a person to help you. Label your illustration with the name of your convict.

Template of outline of a person

Fig.6: Convict shoes and tools to make them

For the Teacher

Purpose: To understand the harshness of daily life of convicts through researching their clothing.

TeachingTips:

Exploring Convict Clothing

As a class, on the Smartboard or using student Chrome Books, look through the ten slides about clothes that convicts wore. 

As a class read and examine the section on clothing.

Ask students to create on A4 blank paper an illustration of their convict wearing appropriate convict clothing reflecting the information students learned from the slide show, including details such as hats, shoes, buttons and appropriate colours etc. Students may choose to use a template of the outline of a person to help them. Students label their illustration with the name of their convict.

Australian Curriculum

Year 4 History Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

7. Convict Love Tokens

For the Student

LI: To understand the purpose of Love Tokens used by convicts.

SC:

  • I can discuss love tokens and their features.
  • I can create 2 love tokens with messages.

Look at the images and description of Convict Love Tokens.

Think-Pair-Share: What do you see when you look at the Love Tokens? What are their features?

One token will be created and written for a member of your family. 

The second token will be created from the point of view of the convict you have researched. Think about the message your convict would have left for their loved ones.

Record both messages in your Integrated Studies book. 

Follow the procedure for making salt dough.

Use the salt dough to create your love tokens. Your tokens will then be baked in the oven.

Fig. 7: Love Token

For the Teacher

Purpose: For students to think about the prospect of leaving England from a convict's perspective. The activity will help to build students' empathy for the convict they are researching.

Teaching Tips:

As a class, explore the Love Token page on the National Museum of Australia's website.

Under the 'View Whole Collection' tab, view various examples of the IWB.

Ask students to discuss and define what the common features of a love token are (EG. metal disc, circular, contains an inscription - discuss the term inscription with students).

Students will then create a 'Love Token' from the point of view of the convict they have researched.  Students will think about and discuss the message they may leave behind for their loved ones. 

Students create their convict love token using salt dough.

See this link for the salt dough recipe TASTE

When students have created and inscribed their message, the love token will be baked in the oven.

Australian Curriculum

History Year 4 Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

Inquiry and skills

  • Analysing

Examine information to identify different points of view (ACHASSI056, ACHASSI077)

8. Life at Sydney Cove

For the Student

LI: To understand the perspective of the early settlers upon arrival in Australia.

SC:

  • I can brainstorm and discuss ideas.
  • I can write a journal entry.

In small groups, view the various images of Early Settlers and identify who is enjoying freedom and whose freedom is at risk.

Complete an All Write Round Robin and record what you think the early settlers may have been thinking and feeling and what they may have seen or heard. 

In your groups, discuss each person's ideas.

Use these ideas to help write a journal entry from the perspective of an Early Settler, detailing their experience.

Fig. 8a: Convicts, free settlers and soldiers
Fig. 8b: Sydney Cove in 1788

For the Teacher

Purpose: For students to view settlement from the perspective of the early settlers.

Teaching Tips:

Print out images found in attachment titled 'Images - Freedom and Early Settlers'  (need to attach it here)

Paste one image in the middle of an A3 piece of paper.

In small groups, students examine each image and decide who has freedom.

Tune students into the Settlers' perspective. How would they have felt? What would they be thinking? What would they have seen? What would they have heard? Students then write the Early Settler's perspective as an All Write Round Robin. Students share what they recorded.

Students use these ideas to help them to write a write a journal entry from the perspective of an Early Settler.

Australian Curriculum

History Year 4 Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

Inquiry and skills

  • Questioning

Pose questions to investigate people, events, places and issues (ACHASSI052, ACHASSI073)

  • Analysing

Examine information to identify different points of view and distinguish facts from opinions (ACHASSI056, ACHASSI077))

  • Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on analysis of information and data (ACHASSI058, (ACHASSI079)

Interact with others with respect to share points of view (ACHASSI059, ACHASSI080)

  • Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms (ACHASSI061, ACHASSI082)

9. Aboriginal Australians and Timeline

For the Student

LI: To understand the richness of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and lifestyles.

SC:

  • I can watch videos, read stories and discuss ideas.
  • I can discuss and add ideas to an Affinity Diagram.
  • I can reflect on what we have learned.

Introduction

Look back at our timeline and see when Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people first migrated to Australia. They had a long long time to develop their culture and traditions before the arrival of the first Europeans in 1770.

The arrival of Europeans had a big impact on the traditional way that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders live. Today we will read stories, watch a video and research information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and traditional lifestyles.

Look at a map of Australia and point to all the places where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders people live.

Yes! They live all over the country with many living a traditional way of life and many have adopted the modern Australian ways of living but are still influenced by their culture and traditional ways of life. 

Affinity Diagram

We are going to create a class Affinity Diagram where we will share the ideas that we learn.

1. Let's start by watching a video on a Dreamtime story about the Rainbow Snake as a class. Then with a partner, discuss one important thing that you noticed. Discuss with the whole class. Let's record these together on post-it notes and add them to some of the headings on the  Affinity Diagram Board.

Media embedded April 14, 2018

 2. Now it's you and your partner's turn.

Media embedded April 5, 2018

3. And here is another!

Media embedded April 14, 2018

4. Now read a Dreamtime story and with a partner, discuss 1-2 important things that you noticed. Record these on post-it notes and add them to a haeading on the Affinity Diagram Board.

5. Next you will be given an information text. Repeat the process of recording 1-2 ideas and adding them to the Affinity Diagram.

Information Text Topics:

  • Aboriginal Dreamtime and connection with Country and Place
  • Food
  • Traditional Housing
  • Education and Initiation
  • Society (laws, government, marriage, role of children etc)
  • Religion
  • Work

6. Finally, watch this video on Land Rights which gives you some information about what happened to Aboriginal people after European settlement.  Discuss 1-2 important things that you noticed. Record these on post -it notes and add them to the Affinity Diagram Board.

 Comment: Look at all the ideas on the Affinity Diagram. What do you see? What have you learned?

For the Teacher

Purpose: For students to firstly appreciate the richness of the culture and traditions of Indigenous Australians in order to understand the effects of European settlement.

Teaching Tips

Refer to the timeframe that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and Europeans have lived in Australia. The background the information provided on the student side explains why we talk about both Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders. 

Also emphasise diversity - there were over 350 Aboriginal languages (hence tribal groups)at time of European settlement; now there is only about 150.

There are 4 stages in this update to cumulatively build and reinforce students' understandings of the richness of Indigenous culture.

The activities with the Dreamtime videos and books could be incorpated into literacy time.

1. Watching a video of a Dreamtime story is engaging and more importantly, allows the teacher to model some ideas that students can draw from the stories they read with their partners. As students suggest ideas, select the best ones to record on post-it notes. Then model by adding them to the Affinity Diagram on a whiteboard. For information on the Affinity Diagram, see Tool Time by David Langford.

Here are some ideas for what the Affinity Diagram might look like. This is just a start and more ideas will be continued to be added, particularly after students read the information texts. Note how simple each idea is, but as a whole there is a sense of the richness of Indigenous culture. 

Affinity Diagram Example

2. and 3. Students repeat the project, working with a partner on a second video.

4. Students take this another step further by reading Dreamtime stories. They discuss and add ideas on post-it notes to the class Affinity Diagram. As students add ideas, you can create new headings if necessary and move post-its around.

There is a range of Dreamtime stories available in the library. Create a collection for this activity and also include in the class library.

5. Students are assigned short information texts about traditional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and lifestyle. They repeat the process. Work with small groups of students for whom the texts may be challenging. Allow others to work independently with their partners.

References:

Aboriginal Peoples of Australia

 Australian Aborigines

Insert tile of library book (Kerry)

Topics:

  • Aboriginal Dreamtime and connection with Country and Place
  • Food
  • Traditional Housing
  • Education and Initiation
  • Society (laws, government, marriage, role of children etc)
  • Religion
  • Work

6. Final Discussion

Watch the video about Land Rights and Eddie Mabo. Discuss how the arrival of Europeanns in Australia had a big impact on the traditional way that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders lived. Use Think-pair-Shares to prompt discussion and engagement. 

  • What is the videoclip about?
  • Who is Eddie Mabo?
  • Why is he important?
  • What do we learn about land rights?

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people today are a diverse group of people, who choose to live in different ways, ranging from living "in Country" in rural and remote areas to modern urban lifesyles. Discuss how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are influenced by their culture and traditional ways of life.

Australian Curriculum

Year 4 History Content Descriptions

The diversity of Australia's first peoples and the long and continuous connection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Country/Place (land, sea, waterways and skies)(ACHASSK083)

The nature of contact between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and others, and the effects of these interactions on, for example, people and environments (ACHASSK086)

10. Aboriginal Perspective

For the Student

LI: To understand the importance of Country and the environment to the Indigenous people and how this was reflected in their artworks.

SC:

  • I can discuss and watch a presentation on Aboriginal art
  • I can create my own artwork based on Aboriginal designs.

Think-Pair-Share: What do you know about Aboriginal Art?

Now look at the Powerpoint on Aboriginal Art. 

Think-Pair-Share: What did you observe when looking at these artworks? 

What is the subject of the paintings?

Who saw animals?

Who saw landscapes?

We will now use these ideas of colours and patterns to create our own artwork. We will create an artwork of a Bogong Moth. We will use browns, reds, whites and yellows and we will mix colours too. 

The Bogong Moth was a traditional source of food for Aboriginal people. 

Fig. 10: Aboriginal Artwork

For the Teacher

Purpose: To embed students' appreciation of Indigenous culture through art.

Teaching Tips:

Review the following website: Art and Design Technology for Kids: Aboriginal Art.

Draw the students' attention to the use of symbols, and how the colours used are those seen in nature. Ask students to share their observations of the different artworks.

View the Powerpoint Presentation which analyses the colours and techniques used by Indigenous artists. 

Discuss how Indigenous artworks relate to the land and animals and how these paintings were often used to tell stories about the life of Aboriginal people. 

Explain to students that they will create their own artwork. They will use the dot technique and colours of the land to create their artwork. The artwork will be a Bogong moth which is a traditional food source for Aboriginal people. 

For further information refer to the website about Bogong Moths please refer to the website below.

Aboriginal Art

Powerpoint Notes

As you show the PPT, prompt students to discuss each image. Questions might include:

What does this painting show?
What colours can you see?
What do these colours remind you of?
What do you think this is (point to a symbol)?
When do you think this painting was created?
Why do you think the artist has created this painting?
Where do you think this painting was made?
How is this painting connected to place?

Ensure you prompt students to think before they discuss. Do not be concerned if all students provide "correct" responses; the focus here is immersing them in images of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art. 

If you create a Community in Scholar for your class, you can "Post Left Side to a Community", select that community, and show the PPT on the SmartBoard..

Slide1: Introduce artists and the variety of tools used to show the art was created by real people, male and female, from places all over Australia and by people of different ages. 

Slides 2 and 3: Show historical art on rocks and bark (includes x-ray art and cross-hatching). Children will be able to recognize animals - people painted what was around them and what was important (food and hunting) in a particular place. Note perspective - we are looking at these at eye-level.

Slide 4: Painting on cloth and canvas; both are more common today. Link this to past (rock paintings) and present (colourful dot paintings) Note the perspective - it's like we are in the sky or an aeroplane looking down on the turtle.

Slide 5: Get children to identify that it is a dot painting. See if they can see the animals that are partly showing at the bottom. Tell them that circles show waterholes. Because people often camped at a waterhole, the circle could also mean that it is a campsite. Again link to place.

Slide 6: Australian desert to draw attention to the use of colours. In the Think-Pair-Shares, children can discuss the colours they see.

Slide 7: Examine the colours and then return to slide 6 to show the colours in the desert again. Today, many artists use other colours because they can buy them in the shop. In the olden days, they had to make the colours from the sand and rocks in the desert or in their local area if they lived in other parts of Australia.

Slides 8-10: Discuss the colours, symbols used in each (waterholes/campfires, running water, people sitting around a campfire). Emphasise that the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people cared about "place" and looking after their environment.

More information is available at Cross Cultural Training Australia: Aboriginal Art

Australian Curriculum

Year 4 History Content Descriptions

The diversity of Australia's first peoples and the long and continuous connection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Country/Place (land, sea, waterways and skies)(ACHASSK083)

The nature of contact between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and others, and the effects of these interactions on, for example, people and environments (ACHASSK086)

11. Features of a Letter

For the Student

LI: To understand how to write a great personal letter.

SC:

  • I can read and analyse a letter

Let's read a letter from a convict man to his parents.

Dearest Papa and Mama

It is eight  months since I saw you standing on the wharf waving goodbye to me. It is now February, 1788 and last week, our ship finally arrived in Sydney Cove. How are you? I am very lonely without my family.

The journey was long and at times the seas were so rough, many people were very ill with sea-sickness; some even died. The food was terrible but we had to eat it - it was all there was.

There wasn't much light and air in our sleeping quarters below deck and because of our chains, we could not move much. Sometimes we were allowed to go on the deck. How I loved those days when I could see the sky and breathe fresh air.

One day when we were on the deck, we saw a man being lashed with a whip. He had done something wrong but I don't know what. This terrified me.

Yesterday we stepped on to dry land. I feel much happier. I know there is hard work ahead for me as a convict. I am sorry for the crime I committed. Hunger will drive good people to commit crime. Now I must face my punishment and hope that one day I will see you again.

Your loving son

Alfred

Let's analyse the letter and complete the chart together.

Feature Example Effect
Greeting    
Question    
Expressing Feelings    
Facts    
Signal words to show time    
Present and past tense    
1st (I/we) & 2nd (you) pronouns    
Parting/Farewell    

Comment: What is one thing you learned about letter writing that you will include in your letter. Read what other students have learned and comment on one that you liked.

Fig.11: Governor Arthur Phillip hoists the British flag over the new colony at Sydney in 1788.

For the Teacher

Purpose: Students identify the features of a letter including details of the text structure and language features. This is a personal letter so it is important to emphasise its purpose of communicating personal information and feelings.

Teaching Tips:

Create a One Text Model for classroom display for student reference as they are writing their letters (See First Steps Writing Resource Book p.32 for more information).

Feature Example Effect
Greeting Dearest Papa and Mama Creates a personal connection between the writer and reader/s
Question How are you? Directly involves the reader
Expressing Feelings

I am very lonely without my family.

How I loved....

This terrified me.

I feel much happier

Personalises the letter and creates a relationship/closeness between the writer and the reader

Creates empathy

Facts

The writer has arrived in Sydney Cove.

The journey took 8 months.

The conditions on the ship were harsh.

The writer stole food.

Communicate information that the writer thinks is most important
Signal words to show time

One day

Today

Now

Show time and sequence the information
Present and past tense It is eight  months since I saw you Communicate what has happened in the past and what is happening now
1st (I/we/me/us) & 2nd (you) person pronouns I saw you standing on the wharf waving goodbye to me. Involves the writer and the reader
Parting/Farewell

....... hope that one day I will see you again

Your loving son

Personalises the letter even more.

Resources

This link includes an interactive game to create a letter.

Australian Curriculum

English

Text Structure and Organisation

Year 3 - Understand how different types of texts vary in use of language choices, depending on their purpose and context (for example,tense and types of sentences) (ACELA1478)

Year 4 - Understand how texts vary in complexity and technicality depending on the approach to the topic, the purpose and the intended audience(ACELA1490)

Responding to literature

Year 4 - Use metalanguage to describe the effects of ideas, text structures and language features of literary texts (ACELT1604)

12. Write a Letter to a Family Member Back Home

For the Student

LI: To apply what you have learned about the life of a convict and about how to write a personal letter.  

S.C:

  • I can write a personal letter with the correct setting out.
  • I can include my feelings in the letter.
  • I can edit and proofread my work.
  • I can present a final copy.

Draft a letter to a family member back home in Europe about your time in the hulks, your journey to your new home in Sydney Cove and what it’s like for you in your new home.

Proofread and edit your work and then write your final copy.

Present your letter as a portfolio piece.

Fig. 12: Paper, ink and a quill would have been difficult for convicts to find.

For the Teacher

Purpose: Students consolidate and demonstrate their knowledge of the First Fleet through writing the letter from the perspective of their convict.

Teaching Tips:

Scaffold this task with a structured discussion where students discuss their lives as convicts with a partner and practise their 'voice'.

Students proofread and edit their work and publish their final copy.

Students complete a 2 Stars and 1 Wish review based on the One Text Model.

This letter will be an assessment and Portfolio piece so it will be necessary to clarify the criteria for success.

Australian Curriculum

Year 4 History Content Descriptions

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

Creating texts - Year 3

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features and selecting print,and multimodal elements appropriate to the audienceand purpose (ACELY1682)

Re-read and edit texts for meaning, appropriate structure, grammatical choices and punctuation(ACELY1683)

Use software including word processing programs with growing speed and efficiency to construct and edit texts featuring visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1685)

Creating texts - Year 4

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts containing key information and supporting details for a widening range of audiences, demonstrating increasing control over textstructures and language features (ACELY1694)

Re-read and edit for meaning by adding, deleting or moving words orword groups to improve content and structure(ACELY1695)

Use a range of software including word processing programs to construct, edit and publish written text, and select, edit and place visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1697)

13. What I've Learnt

For the Student

LI: To reflect on my learning.

S.C:

  • I can complete the third column of a KWL chart.
  • I can reflect on what I have learnt.

Review the KWL chart you started at the beginning of this unit. On a post it note, write down the important things you have learned and add it to the chart.

Comment: Write a reflection on your learning. What  important information did you learn? What did you learn about yourself as a learner? How did you learn best? Read other students' comments and comment on 1 that interested you. Explain why.

Fig. 13: KWL

For the Teacher

Purpose: To review the integrated unit and complete the KWL chart constructed at the beginning of this learning module.

Teaching Tips:

When writing their reflection ask students to reflect on both the information and understanding they have learned and what they have learned about themselves as learners.

Australian Curriculum

Year 4 History Content Descriptions

The diversity of Australia's first peoples and the long and continuous connection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Country/Place (land, sea, waterways and skies)(ACHASSK083)

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival (ACHASSK085)

The nature of contact between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and others, and the effects of these interactions on, for example, people and environments (ACHASSK086)

14. Acknowledgements

Title: By John Michael Crossland - Portrait of Nannultera, a young Poonindie cricketer at the National Gallery of Australia, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15109940 (Source); Fig 1: Travel by Wilerson S. Andrade (Source); Fig. 2: The First Fleet entering Port Jackson by E. Le Bihan - http://www.acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=845003, Public Domain, (Source); Fig. 3a: Convict ship (Source)  Fig. 3b: England (Source); Fig. 4: Convicts in 1793 By Juan Ravenet (b. c. 1766) - Felipe Bauza - drawings made on the Spanish Scientific Expedition to Australia and the Pacific in the ships Descubierta and Atrevida under the command of Alessandro Malaspina, 1789-94, held at the State Library of New South Wales, Public Domain, (Source); Fig. 5: Chain Gang By Backhouse, Edward, 1808-1879 Backhouse, James, 1794-1869 - Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts : State Library of Tasmania (ADRI: AUTAS001124070970), Public Domain, (Source);  Fig. 6: Shoes and Tools (Source); Fig. 7: Love Token (Source); Fig. 8: By State Library of New South Wales, CC BY-SA 3.0 au (Source); Fig.8b: Sydney Cove 1789 (Source); Fig. 10: Aboriginal Artwork, Public Domain (Source);  Fig. 11: By Algernon Talmage - http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemPopLarger.aspx?itemid=404568, Public Domain, (Source); Fig. 12: (Source); Fig. 13: KWL (Source).