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A Cultural Guide to Afghanistan

Learning Module

Abstract

Afghanistan culture has been rich and diverse. It has taken shape for more than thousands of years. Islam religion has influenced the Afghan culture. Pashto and Dari are two official language in Afghanistan. Civilization has resulted to infiltrate western culture into the Afghan culture (Kiprop, 2018). The purpose of this learning module is to provide a cultural guide to someone who learn Afghanistan’s official languages, visit Afghanistan or work in Afghanistan.

Keywords

Afghan Culture, Pashtunwali, Buddhas of Bamiyan

Overview

This learning module is about a cultural guide to Afghanistan. My school teachers and I have previously taught the material of this learning module at Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC). The material of this learning module is now transformed by adding medias, pictures, peer comments, updates and peer review feedback to make the learning model reflexive learning. In this learning module “[e]very interaction is a moment of what we call “recursive feedback,” or feedback that can lead to more feedback until learning is demonstrated…we call "reflexive pedagogy” (Cope, 2017, para. 8). The term culture has defined as “the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group”(Marriam-Webster’s dictionary, 1828). Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory has asserts that societies, cultures, learning and teaching methods have tight correlations to each other. This theory not only emphasizes on how adults and peers effect individual learning, but it also emphasizes on how cultural beliefs and attitudes impact teaching and learning (Cherry, 2019, para. 5). Based on the Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, this learning module focuses on essential Afghan cultural aspects, such as Afghanistan geography, Buddhas of Bamiyan, Pashtunwali, Afghan wedding, Afghan food, Afghan cultural festivals and events, and Afghan music.

Intended Learning Outcomes & Objectives

For the Participant

Afghan culture practice refers tobehaviors accepted by Afghan society and deal with aspects of the culture such as wedding, Pashtunwali, Afghan music, Afghan festivals, and plagiarism sightseeing, such as Bamiyan's Buddhas. Indeed, these patterns represent the Afghan culture knowledge of what to do; when to do; and where to do. Products of this learning module may be tangible such as an interviewing native Afghan speakers or it may be intangible, such as an oral tale and an Afghan national dance which it is called Ataan (Afghanistan Language and Culture Program, n. d.).

  You should be aware of the limitations and awkward situations of the Afghan culture. For example, what could happen in a situation if you or a United States’ soldier, who would not have Afghan culture’s essential knowledge, could not differentiate an Afghan wedding party from a very important meeting of the insurgents in Afghanistan? If foreigners who want to deal with Afghans do not know Afghan cultural values, they will not only face themselves to unfortunate and bloody situations inside or outside of Afghanistan, but they will also face other people to awkward situations (Sturcke, 2008).

Objectives: This learning module will help participants to achieve the following objectives.

  • Participants will learn about Afghan culture essential aspects.
  • Participants will practice key Afghan cultural terminologies.
  • Participants will write comments and updates to deepen their understanding of the material about Afghan culture different aspects.
  • Participants will share and discuss ideas with fellow participants through their comments and updates.
  • Participants will reflect on the Afghan culture essential aspects.

Outcomes: As a result of such knowledge and skills, students or participants will eventually be able to:

  • Use Afghan culture essential knowledge in their real life situations.
  • Achieve their goals properly by respecting and obeying Afghan culture traditional values when they deal with Afghan people.
  • By having Afghan culture knowledge, participants, will enjoy their time in Afghanistan.

Click the hyperlink below to take an introductory survey for this learning module.

 Introductory Survey For This Learning Module.

For the Teacher

As a 21st century teacher, you should know that this learning module is designed for undergraduate Pashto and Dari languages learners who are going to visit or work in Afghanistan. The range of learning levels of participants for this learning module is Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) level 2+ to 3. This learning module assumes learners to have at least a ILR Pashto or Dari language’s listening, reading, and speaking level 2+ (ILR scale, n. d.).

 The teacher should clearly give students a message that:

Language and culture are intertwined. A particular language usually points out to a specific group of people. When you interact with another language, it means that you are also interacting with the culture that speaks the language. You cannot understand one's culture without accessing its language directly. (The Relationship Between Language and Culture, 2018)

You should aware the students form the limitations and awkward situations of Afghan culture. For example, what could happen in a situation if you or a United States’ soldier, who would not have Afghan culture’s essential knowledge, could not differentiate an Afghan wedding party from a very important meeting of insurgents in Afghanistan? If foreigners who want to deal with Afghans do not know Afghan cultural values, they will face unfortunate and bloody situations inside or outside of Afghanistan (Sturcke, 2008).

This Learning module design will address the following relevant cultural standards of communication in language other than english:

  • Standard 2.1: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied.
  • Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspective of the culture studied (“Cultural Standard Communication,” n.d.).

Outcomes: You, as a teacher, should know that students or participants will acquire the following outcomes as a result of participating in this learning module.

  • Participants will know that it is vital to have essential knowledge of Afghan culture to use Pashto and Dari languages effectively.
  • Participants will know that understanding Afghan culture knowledge is crucial for people who want to visit Afghanistan or work in Afghanistan to achieve their missions’ objectives.

Before you ,as a teacher, start facilitating other sections of this learning module, you should ask students to take this introductory survey.

 Introductory Survey for This Learning Module.

Update 1: Geography of Afghanistan

Afghanistan has different regions and each region has its own customs and cultural values, events, music, and food. The region of Kabul is the country's capital. Another popular destination in Afghanistan is the Bamiyan region which is located in the central region of the country(“Geography of Afghanistan,” n. d.).

For the Participant

Objectives:

  • Participants will gain basic knowledge about Afghanistan geography.
  • Participants will practice key terms and phrases related to Afghanistan geography.
  • Participants will provide comments and updates to deepen their understanding of the materials about Afghanistan geography.
  • Participants will share ideas with their fellow students about Afghanistan geography.
  • Participants will form personal connections to different regions of Afghanistan.

Lead in/ Schemata (Formative Assessment):

Look at the following map and think critically about it to answer the following question.

Based on the map, is Afghanistan a favorite country for you to visit? Why or why not?

The map above offers geographical information about different regions of Afghanistan.

(Google image, n. d.).

Here are some crucial facts about Afghanistan:

Location: In Southwestern, Afghanistan is bordered with Pakistan; in Northeastern, it is bordered with Tajikistan; in North, it is bordered with Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan; in East, it is bordered with China; in West, it is bordered with Iran.
Continent: Asia
Sub-region: Central Asia
Total area: 647500 Km
Cost-line: 0Km (0mi)
Highest point: Nowshak, 7, 486 ml/24560 ft
Lowest point: Amu Darya
Famous Rivers: Amu Darya, Kabul Darya, and Konar Darya
Famous Mountains: Hindukush Ghar, Spein Ghar and Baba Ghar (“Geography of Afghanistan,” n. d.).

The following vidio clip shortly explains Afghanistan geography.

Media embedded October 9, 2019

(Geography, N.,2014).

The following video clip is a BBC documentary regarding Afghan culture in different regions of Afghanistan.

Media embedded October 9, 2019

(RuniTravel., 2011).

Please explore the following supporting resources to get more information regarding Afghanistan geography.

Afghanistan geography

Afghanistan : History, Map, Flag, Capital, Population, and much more.

Comment: After exploring the materials above, answer the following questions.

What did you learn from looking at the map, watching videos, and expoloring the supportive resources above? What did you know before? Where might you like to visit in Afghanistan and why? Use @Name to speak with others about their thoughts regarding the questions above. Read and comment on at least 3 other students’ comments.

Update: Research online one region of Afghanistan and provide information on geography, history, climate aspects, customs, food, and festivals of the region. Use @Name to comment on at least 3 other students' updates on regions that are different from yours.

For the Instructor

Established Goals for this update is to:

  • Gain basic knowledge and understand Afghanistan geography.
  • Practice key terms and phrases related to Afghanistan geography.
  • Evaluate students' comments and updates to deepen your understanding of the materials about Afghanistan geography.
  • Share ideas with students about Afghanistan geography.
  • Form personal connections to different regions of Afghanistan.

Update 2a: Buddhas of Bamiyan

For the Participant

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia asserts that:

The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Dari: بت‌های باميان‎; Pashto: د باميانو بتان‎) were two 6th century[1] monumental statues of Gautama Buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyian valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, 230 kilometres (140 mi) northwest of Kabul at an elevation of 2,500 meters (8,200 ft). Built in 507 CE (smaller) and 554 CE (larger), the statues represented the classic blended style of Gandhara art. They were respectively 35 and 53 m (115 and 174 ft) tall. Along the way, visitors stay at cheap hostels and restaurant with local foods. The Buddhas of Bamyan are religious pilgrimages honoring Gautama Buddha. Nowadays, many tourists hike the Buddhas of Bamiyan for personal enjoyment and a unique way to see Afghanistan.(The Buddhas of Bamiyan, n.d., para.1)

The following short video clip gives you information about Buddhas of Bamiyan.

Media embedded October 9, 2019

(NATO., 2011).

The following video clip describes the Buddhas of Bamiyan and their destruction by Taliban.

Media embedded October 9, 2019

(jazzaintmusic, 2013).

The following video clip gives you informaton about the future of the Buddhas of Bamiyan.

Media embedded October 9, 2019

(euronews, 2011).

Comment: Would you like to go to Bamyan province of Afghanistan to see the Buddhas of Bamiyan? Why or why not? What are some of the challenges you would face? Use @Name to speak with others about their thoughts regarding the questions above. Read and comment on at least 3 other students’ comments.

Update: If you had a chance to viste Budhhas of Bamiyan, how would you prepare to visit the Buddhas of Bamiyan? Include parts of the trip you are looking forward to. Use @Name to read and comment on at least 3 other students' updates.

For the Instructor

The objective of this update for you is to:

  • Learn about important ancient cultural experiences in Afghanistan.
  • Reflect on how students of this learning module would approach a difficult task in a foreign place such as Bamyan, a province of Afghanistan.
  • Aske the studens to plan a trip to Bamyan and write about it.
  •  Discuss the video from this update and ask students what they think about the popularity of the Buddhas of Bamyan and how it has changed over the years.

Update 2b: Literature Review Work

For the Participant

Take one of the Afghan culture aspects introduced in this learning module. Outline the Afghan cultural aspect and explain the significance and challenges of the aspect. Use examples of your home country cultural aspects to connect with the perception of the aspect. This literature review should be at least 1000 words in length. It must include medias related to the Afghan culture aspect such as images, diagrams, tables and videos. Be sure to cite and reference all materials that is quoted or otherwise used and provide context on how the aspect applies to your own everyday life. Review at least 2 scholarly literatures or books, plus any other necessary or relevant resources including websites and other media. This literature review must have a reference page in which all materials that are used in the work should be reperenced. Refer to the following example for this work to get an idea. Click on the link below to reach the example which is about the history of Bamiyan's Buddhas.

Example of Literature Review

Timelines for this literature review & peer review:

You have a work request of literature review on the beginning of the first day of second update.
Draft due and distribution of this work is due on the last day of third update of this learning module. Draft should be as complete as possible so that your peers can provide you meaningful feedback.
Peer review assignments distribution is on the beginning of the first day of fourth update of this learning module.
Peer reviews due and released to authors is the last day of the fourth update of this learning module. Final version due is the last day of the fifth update.

Please align your literature review and peer review with the following rubric.

Rubric for Literature Review & Peer Review

 

For the Instructor

In this update, assigne participants to do literature review and peer review.

Participants will take one of the Afghan culture aspects introduced in this learning module. They will outline the Afghan cultural aspect and explain the significance and challenges of the aspect. They will use examples of their home country cultural aspects to connect with the perception of the Afghan cultural aspect. This literature review should be at least 1000 words in length. They must include media related to the Afghan culture aspect such as images, diagrams, tables and videos. They must be sure to cite and reference all materials that is quoted or otherwise used and provide context on how the media applies to the Afghan cutlure aspect.This work must have a references section page and references to at least 2 scholarly articles or books, plus any other necessary or relevant references, including websites and other media. Participants will refer to the following example for this work to get an idea. Click on the link below to reach the example which is about the history of Afghanistan’s Bamiyan Buddhas.

Example of Literature Review

Timelines for the Literature Review & Peer Review:

Send a work request of literature review on the beginning of the first day of second update.
Draft due and distribution of the literature review for peer review is the last day of third update of this learning module. Draft should be as completed as possible so that their peers can provide them meaningful feedback.
Peer review assignment distribution is due on the beginning of the first day of fourth update of this learning module.
Peer reviews due and released to authors is the last day of the fourth update of this learning module. Final version due is the last day of the fifth update.

Evaluate students' literature reviews and peer reviews based on the following Rubric.

Rubric for Literature Review and Peer Review

 

Update 3: Pashtunwali: as an Essential Aspect of Afghan Culture.

Pashtunwali is the life style of Pashtun people in Afghanistan. Pashtuns are people who speaks Pashto language in Afghanistan. Pashtunwali is un-written codes of honor that adjust, direct, and balance the discipline of the Pashtuns’ way of life. Pashtunwali has many crucial aspects inside itself, such as Jirga which means assembly, Nanawatay which means to give sanctuary, Melmastia which means hospitality, and Badal which means revenge (Afghanistan Language and Culture Program, n. d., para. 1). Melmastia means offering hospitality to a guest. It also means once under the roof of the host, a guest should neither be harmed nor surrendered to an enemy. Nanawatai is another vital aspect of the Pashtunwali code. It allows a person to pursue asylum in the house of another to seeking sanctuary against his enemies. A Jirga is a traditional gathering of Afghan leaders that make decisions by a general agreement according to the teachings of Pashtunwali (Ali, 2013, para.1). Ali (20130 has aserts that:

Simply put, “Badal” means “to seek justice or take revenge against the wrongdoer.” There is no time limit to when the injustice can be avenged. If badal is not exercised, the offended man or his family will be considered stripped of honour. The exercise of this principle can lead to generations of bloodshed, feuds, hundreds of lives lost for one insult. (Ali, 3013, para. 3).

For the Participant

Objectives: After finishing this update you will be able to:

  • Talk about Pashtunwali ,the codes of honor for Pashtuns.
  • Apply some Pashtunwali aspects that you are interested in to your real life situations.
  • Compare Pashtunwali concepts to your home country’s unwritten law codes.
  • Understand that a Jirga is a traditional assembly of Pashtuns’ tribal leaders that make decisions by reaching an agreement according to the teachings of Pashtunwali ( “Jirga”, n. d. ).
  • Understand that "[n]anawatai is another pillar of the Pashtunwali code. It allows a person to seek refuge in the house of another, seeking asylum against his enemies” (Ali, 2013, para.1).
  • Understand that:

Simply put, “Badal” means “to seek justice or take revenge against the wrongdoer.” There is no time limit to when the injustice can be avenged. If badal is not exercised, the offended man or his family will be considered stripped of honour. The exercise of this principle can lead to generations of bloodshed, feuds, hundreds of lives lost for one insult. (Ali, 3013, para. 3).

Schemata /Lead in:

To connect your previouse knowledge with this update materials, please think critically about the following questions.

  • What did you know about Pashtunwali?
  • What do you want to know about Pashtunwali.

Watch the following video on Pashtunwali to gain essential information about Pashtunwali's apects.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

(Retalia, 2007).

The following video clip shows Afghan Nanawati or sanctuary cultural aspect which called “Marcus Luttrell and Mohammad Gulab (the real characters of Lone Survivor.)” You can watch the full movie on YouTube.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

(Afghan Women Forum, 2014).

The following video clip is a part of a movie called "Lone Survivor: How an Afghan and a Navy SEAL became "brothers." This movie shows one of the most important Afghan cultural aspect which called Nanawati.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

(Top-info-post, 2014).

Explore the following supportive materials to get even more information about the Pashtunwali.

Comment: choose one standout aspect of the Pashtunwali and comment on it. Use @Name to speak with others about their thoughts. Read and comment on at least 3 other students’ comments.

Update: Pick three Pashtunwali codes you think you could use often during your time in Afghanistan if you would visit Afghanistan. Describe when you would use them and why. Use @Name to comment on at least 3 other students' updates after reading them.

Synchronous Meeting:

At the last day of update # 3, you will have a synchronous meeting through Google Hang out or Zoom us.com to solve a real life problem by an Afghan cultural aspect which is called Jirga. In this synchronous meeting, you will be divided into two groups, A & B.

Scenario: the United States’ Aid International Development (USAID) program is going to build a clinic for two villages in a province of Afghanistan. Group A is elders from a village in Nangarhar province in Afghanistan and wants the USAID to build the clinic in their village, however, group B is elders from another neighbor village in the same province and wants the USAID to build the clinic in their village. The conflict has stopped USAID to build the clinic. Group A, and group B have decided to solve this conflect through the traditional Jirga.

  • At the Jirga, group A will provide at least three logical reasons in Pashto or Dari language  which is an official language of Afghanistan that why the clinic should be built in their village.
  • At the Jirga, group B will also provide at least three reasons in Pashto or Dari language that why the clinic should be built in their village.

At the end of the Jirga, both groups will negotiate on building the clinic on the middle of the two villages to benefit both villages.

For the Instructor

Objectives: The objective of this update for you is to:

  • Have sufficient knowledge of Pashtunwali, the codes of honor for Pashtun people.
  • Apply some Pashtunwali aspects that students interested in to use those in their real life situations.
  • Have the participants to compare Pashtunwali to their own native country’s unwritten law codes.
  • Understand that a Jirga is a traditional assembly of Pashtuns’ tribal leaders that make decisions by reaching an agreement according to the teachings of Pashtunwali ( “Jirga”, n. d. ).
  • Observe participants in a synchronous Jirga and provide feedback if needed.

Schemata /Lead in:

Ask students the following questions to connect students’ previous knowledge with the knowledge of this update about Pashtunwali.

What did you know about Pashtunwali?

What do you want to know about Pashtunwali?

As a 21st century teacher, be prepared for a synchronous meeting!

At the last day of update # 3, participants will have a synchronous meeting through Google Hang out or Zoom us.com as a formative assessment. They will solve a real life problem by the Jirga. In this synchronous meeting, participants of this learning module will be divided into two groups, A & B.

Scenario: the United States’ aid international development (USAID) program is going to build a clinic for two villages in Nangarhar, a province of Afghanistan. Group A is elders from a village in Nangarhar province in Afghanistan and wants the USAID to build the clinic in their village, however, group B is elders from another neighbor village in the same province and wants the USAID to build the clinic in their village. The conflict has stopped USAID to build the clinic. Group A and group B have decided to solve the conflict or problem through the traditional Jirga.

  • At the Jirga, group A will provide at least three logical reasons in Pashto or Dari language that why the clinic should be built in their village.
  • At the Jirga, group B will also provide at least three reasons in Pashto or Dari language that why the clinic should be built in their village.

At the end of the Jirga, both groups will negotiate on building the clinic on the middle of the two villages to benefit both villages, and you as the teacher will provide feedbacks if needed.

You shoud understand that in this synchronous meeting the universal design for learning (UDL) principle I: providing multiple means of representation (the “what” of learning), UDL-principle II: providing multiple means of action and expression (the “how” of learning) and UDL- principle III: providing multiple means of engagement (the “why” of learning.) will be applied (“Overview of 3 UDL Principles,” n.d.).

 

Update 4: Wedding Customs in Afghan Culture

Weeding is an essential part of Afghan culture. When a man want to get married in Afghan culture, he  sends their family over to the girl family for a marriage proposal. Once the parents of the girl has accepted the proposal, the girl’s side of the family gives sweeties to the eldest of the man’s side of the family. The sweeties basically represents that the girl’s side of the family has accepted the proposal (Mangal, 2017, para. 1).

For the Participant

Objectives: At the end of this update you will be able to:

  • Understand the rules of getting engaged and married in Afghan culture.
  • Know general information regarding Afghan weeding events.
  • Understand why Marriage is a significant foundation for making family in Afghan culture.

The following short video about Afghan wedding party is a singnificant example of wedding customs in Afghan culture.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

(Hamid, 2012).

The following video clip shows the traditional Afghan weeding.

Media embedded September 29, 2019
 

(Afghans Wedding Cali - HR, 2018).

The below video clip shows a escaping forced marriage from afghanistan.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

(Weibe, 2018).

Supportive resources:

Please click on the hyperlinks below to gain more information on the Afgan wedding custom.

 

For the purpose of a formative assessment, you are assigned to interview at least two Afghan people through Zoom.us synchronous digital tool or any other digital tools to gain firsthand knowledge regarding Afghan wedding culture. You will then explain the knowledge to your parents or relatives in your home. You will then answer your parents or guardians’ questions which maybe the following:

What are the pros and cons of the Afghan wedding in Afghan culture?
How does wedding as a crucial aspect of the Afghan culture differ from wedding parties as culture aspect of American culture?

You are supposed to record your synchronous interviews and email those to your teacher.

Comment: After watching and exploring the above materials, write about differences and similarities between Afghan and your own home country wedding customs. Use @Name to speak with other participants about their thoughts. Read and comment on at least 3 other participants’ comments.

Update: What recommendations do you propose to make the Afghan wedding customs more innovative? Use @Name to comment on at least 3 other students' updates after reading them.

For the Instructor

Objectives: As a 21st century teacher, you should:

  • Understand the rules of getting engaged and married in Afghan culture.
  • Understand why Marriage is a significant foundation for making family in Afghan culture.
  • Engage participants in interviews with about Afghan wedding customs.

To be prepared to answerer students' receptive questions about Afghan wedding customes, you should explore the following resources regarding Afghan wedding customs.

Formative assessment (an innovative way to assesst your students):

For engagement /participation with an appropriate community of practice, participants will interview at least two Afghan people through Zoom.us synchronous digital tool or any other digital tools to gain firsthand knowledge regarding Afghan wedding culture. They will then explain the knowledge to their parents or relatives in their home. They will then answer their parents or guardians’ questions which they maybe the following:

What are the pros and cons of the Afghan wedding in Afghan culture?
How does wedding as a crucial aspect of the Afghan culture differ from wedding parties from American wedding culture?

They will record their synchronous interviews and email those to you (the teacher).

The above activities will fulfill the universal design for learning (UDL) principle I: providing multiple means of representation (the “what” of learning); the UDL-principle II: providing multiple means of action and expression (the “how” of learning); and the UDL- principle III: providing multiple means of mngagement (“Overview of 3 UDL Principles,” n.d.).

Update 5: Food in Afghan Culture

Afghan food is very delicious and it is one of the top South Asian foods. You must not miss the opportunity to try out the customary food in Afghanistan because there are a lot of homegrown delicacies here that you might not get elsewhere (Shino, 2018, para.1).

For the Participant

Objectives: After participating in update 5, you will be able to:

  • Comprehend Afghan foods.
  • Understand several Afghan food recipes.
  • Understand how different Afghan food is than other nation's food in the world.

The video clip below explains Afghan Street Food in Kabul, Afghanistan.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

(Afghan Street Food, 2019).

Watch the following video on the most popular foods in Afghanistan. Remember, dishes vary by regions in Afghanistan.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

 (Lehren Lifestyle, 2016).

The following video shows Afghan Kabab recipe and how to make an Afghan Kabab. Enjoy it!

Media embedded October 10, 2019

(International Cuisines, 2016).

Shino (2018) has provided briliant information about traditional food in Afghanistan in her article “Traditional Food In Afghanistan.” Click here to enjoy reading about Afghan food.

Mini immersion:

  • Search an Afghan restaurant in your nearby cities and order an Afghan food by phone.
  • By the help of your teache, go to an Afghan restaurant and order an Afghan food.
  • Discuss your successes and failures with your fellow students.

Comment: Which dish looks appetizing to you in the above videos? Have you tried any Afghan food before? Is there any special food in your home country that is similar to Afghan food? Use @Name to speak with others about their thoughts regarding the questions above. Read and comment on at least 3 other students’ comments.

Update: Research an Afghan dish. Find out where it is eaten in Afghanistan. Are there any festivals or particular holidays associated with the food in your home countries? Use @Name to comment on at least 3 other students' updates after reading them.

For the Instructor

Objectives:

  • Have enough information about Afghan food.
  • Understand several Afghan food recipes.
  • Understand how different Afghan food is diffent than other nation in the world.
  • Discuss students' successes and failures.

Mini emersions:

  • Have students to search an Afghan restaurant and order an Afghan food by phone.
  • Have students, in pair, play the role of a restaurant owner and a customer ordering the food for a birth day party.
  • Take students to an Afghan restaurant and have them practice ordering food.

Update 6: Afghan Cultural Festivals and Events

Cultural festivals and events are mainly categorized in three categories, traditional, national, and religious in Afghanistan. Nauroz is one of the most popular traditional festivals in Afghanistan. Nauroz ,which is the first day of new year celebration according to the solar calendar, is celebrated on first day of the spring in Afghanistan. It fits with March 21th of the Gregorian year. The other name for this festival is Gul-e-Sorkh. Independence Day of Afghanistan is a national festival. Eid Al-Fitter, which is celebrated after one month of Ramadan, is a religious festival as well. Eid Al-Adha, which is celebrated on the 10th day of 12th month of the Islamic calendar, is also a religious festival(Cultural Festivals & Events, n.d.).

For the Participant

Objectives: After participating in this update, you will be able to:

  • Discuss Afghan cultural festivals with your fellow participants.

  • Comprehend Afghanistan traditional, national, and religious festivals.

  • Compare across cultures with your home country’s festivals.

  • Design a plan for a trip to participate in an Afghan festival.

The following videp shows Nauruz a celeberation event.

Media embedded October 11, 2019

(AFG Social Media, 2019).

The following video clip explores the Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan. Blue Mosque is a femous place in which Nauroz is celebrated every year in Afghanistan.

Media embedded September 29, 2019

(Rawan, 2019).

The following video clip shows a very curcial festival which called Nowruz.

Media embedded October 9, 2019

(BBC News, 2019).

Watch the following video clip to gain informatin about a religious festival which called EId Ul-Adha.

Media embedded October 9, 2019

(Sharifi, 2018).

The following article is about Afghanistan celebration of Eid al-Adha holiday.

Afghanistan celebrates Eid al-Adha holiday amid calls for peace

(Hassib, 2017) .

Comment: How are these festivals different or similar to the holidays you have in your home country? Use @Name to speak with others participants about their thoughts regarding the question above. Read and comment on at least 3 other students’ comments.

Update: Write about your favorite Afghan festival from the materials in this update. Why is this festival favorite to you? If you had a chance to participate in your favorite festival, how would you planned your tripe. Use @Name to comment on at least 3 other students' updates after reading them.

For the Instructor

Objectives: The objectives of this update for you are to:

  • Learn about Afghanistan traditional, national, and religious festivals.
  • Compare across cultures with students’ home country’s festivals.
  • Reflect on how to plan a trip to participate in an Afghan festival.
  • Have each student to draw a picture of their favorite Afghan festival and have them to present the picture to the class.

Please read the artical "Afghanistan celebrates Eid al-Adha holiday amid calls for peace" by Hassib (2017) for your more information to answer your students questions.

Update 7: Music In Afghan Culture

Music in Afghan culture has different meaning from music in the West culture. Music in the West culture is organized and performed by music professionals, however, music in Afghan culture is unorganized and performed by music un-professionals. Music in Afghan culture is more restricted than the West culture general understanding of the concept of music. In the West culture it is secular and more instrumental. On the other hand, in Afghan culture, music is broadly disapproved by Islam. There are several types of music in Afghan culture. Regional folk music is differed from one region to another. For example the following Chahar Baiti four lines of overs with the verse order of AABA is popular in north Afghanistan (Hiromi, 2012).

This is an example of the songs in Afghan music.

(Hiromi, 2012).

 

For the Participant

Objectives: After participating in this update, you will:

  • Be familiar with Afghan music culture.
  • Reflect on Afghan music culture.
  • Share different nations music cultural experiences.

The follow melody is called Adam Khan aw Durkhani Rubab which is popular in the Southwestern

of Afghanistan.

Media embedded October 10, 2019

(Samir, 2015).

The following Afghan Dari song is dedicated to mothers.

Media embedded October 10, 2019

(Qais, 2010).

The following song is a part of Afghan Uzbek music culture which is popular in Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan.

Media embedded October 10, 2019

(Roun Tubur, 2017).

The following performance is called “Mili Attan” and is performed in Afghan wedding parties and in national days in Afghanistan.

Media embedded October 10, 2019

(Osuli, 2018)

Comment: If you had a chance to participate in a live concert in Afghanistan, which one of the above songs would you listen to? Why or why not? Use @Name to speak with other participants about their thoughts regarding the question above. To avoid cognitive load in this update, read and comment on at just one other students’ comments.

Update: What are some differences and similarities between Afghan music culture and your home country music culture? What is your personal experience about music? Use @Name to speak with other participants about their thoughts regarding the questions above. To avoid cognitive load in this update, read and comment on at just one other students’ comments.

For the Instructor

Objectives:

  • Be familiar with Afghan music culture.
  • Reflect on Afghan music culture.
  • Share different nations’ music cultural experiences with students.

Summative Assessment: Reflection Paper

For the Participant

Objectives: By paricipation in this summative assessmnt you wil be albe:

  • To involved in higher level thinking and problem solving by Afghan cultural knowledge.
  • To learn from your learning experience about Afghan culture.
  • To improve your awareness of Afghan culture values.

Please write a reflection paper on Afghan cultural aspects.

The expectations from you in this summative assessment are:

  • To accurately transfer your Afghan culture essential knowledge which you have learned from this learning module.
  • To express your Afghan culture knowledge that how you will use it in your real life.
  • To turn in your reflection paper to your teacher on the third day of the this update.

For the purpose of media-based form of content, you should include at least 2 videos and two pictures related to Afghan cultural aspects in your reflection paper to make it reflexive pedagogy. For example, two videos of the same cultural aspect, one is positive situation of one aspect of the Afghan culture and the other is the same cultural aspect negative situation. What did you learn from the positive situation and what do you learn from the negative situation of the same cultural aspect?
The reflectoin should be at least 1000 words in Pashto or Dari language.
Your understanding of Afghan cultural aspects in this reflection paper will be evaluated based on the following rubric.

Rubric for Relection Paper: Summative Assessment

 

For the Instructor

Have the students to write a reflection paper as a summative assessment for this learning module.

Objectives:

  • To evaluate students’ basic skills about Afghan cultural aspects.
  • To better understand students’ target language knowledge.
  • To check out students’ higher level thinking capacities.

Evaluate students’ reflection papers based on the following rubric.

Rubric for Reflection Paper: Summative Assessment

 

Survey for A Cultural Guide to Afghanistan: Learning Module

For the Participant

Participants’ feedback is vital to the this Learning module, so take a moment to complete this survey. Your views and opinions will help us to improve the quality of this learning module. Please click on the hyperlink below to get the survey.

Evaluation Survey for A Cultural Guide to Afghanistan-Learning Module

For the Instructor

As a teacher of this learning module, your feedback is vital to the this Learning module, so take a moment to complete this survey. Your views and opinions will help us to improve the quality of the learning module of A Cultural Guide to Afghanistan. Please click on the hyperlink below to take the survey.

Evaluation Survey for A Cultural Guide to Afghanistan-Learning Module

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